APUSH Period 3 Terms
Terms in this set (79)
Demanded that the king's government all rights of all citizens including "No taxation without representation"- in response to the stamp act.
Stamp Act Congress
Representatives from nine colonies met in New york. They resolved that only their own elected representatives had the legal authority to approve taxes.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
A secret society organized for the purpose of intimidating tax agents. Sometimes destroyed revenue stamps and tarred and feathered revenue officials.
Kept alive the view that the British officials were undermining colonial liberties. Initiated the Committees of Correspondence. Wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter and sent copies to every colonial legislature. It urged the various colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts.
In his Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania he wrote that Parliament could regulate commerce but argued that because duties were a form of taxation, they could not be levied on the colonies without the consent of their representative assemblies. He argued that the idea of no taxation without representation was an essential principle of english law.
Committees of Correspondence
Initiated by Samuel Adams. Practice of organizing committees that would regularly exchange letters about suspicious or potentially threatening British activities.
In retaliation of the Boston Tea Party the British government enacted a series of punitive acts including closing the port of Boston, reducing the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor, allowing royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in Great Britain, and expanding the Quartering Act to enable British troops to be quartered in private homes.
The king of England who wanted the American colonies to bear more of the cost of maintaining the British empire.
Forgotten after the 7 years war. Abandoned as the British adopted more forceful policies for taking control of their expanded North American dominions.
The Prime Minister of England. Urged Parliament to repeal the Townshend acts because they damaged trade and generated a disappointingly small amount of revenue.
The American Indians were angered by the growing westward movement of European settlers onto their land and by the growing westward movement of European settlers onto their land and by the British refusal to offer gifts as the French had Done. Chief Pontiac destroyed forts and settlements from New York to Virginia. Rather than relying on colonial forces to retaliate, the British sent regular troops to put down the uprising.
Proclamation Line of 1763
British government issued a proclamation that prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. The British hoped that limiting settlements would prevent future hostilities between colonists and American Indians. Colonists acted with anger.
French and Indian War
North American phase of the 7 years war. British won. Ended salutary neglect.
Seven Years War
Ongoing war between the French and British. British won.
Albany Plan of Union
Developed by Benjamin Franklin that provided for an intercolonial government and a system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes from the various colonies for their common defense. Set a precedent for later, more revolutionary congresses in the 1770s.
Colonial lawyer who defended the British soldiers during the Boston Massacre.
A crowd of colonists harassed the guards near the customs house. The guards fired into the crowd, killing five people including an African American, Crispus Attucks.
General in the French- Indian war. An expedition led by him ended in a disastrous defeat as more than 2000 British regulars and colonial troops were routed by a smaller force of French and American Indians near Ft. Duquesne.
Aka Revenue act of 1764. Placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries.
Required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers stationed in the colonies.
Required that revenue stamps be placed on most printed paper in the colonies, including all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and advertisements. First direct tax.
Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp act. This act asserted that Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". This declaration of policy would soon lead to renewed conflict between the colonists and the British government.
Parliament enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper. Required that the revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies. Also provided the search of private homes for smuggled goods.
Parliament passed this act which made the price of the company's tea-- even with the tax included -- cheaper than the cost of smuggled Dutch tea.
4 of these acts directed at punishing the people of Boston and Massachusetts. These acts included 1. closing the port Boston. 2. Reducing the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor. 3. Allowing royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in Great Britain instead of in the colonies. 4. Expanded the Quartering Act to enable British troops to be quartered in private homes.
Boston Tea Party
A group of Bostonians disguised themselves as American Indians, boarded the British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor.
Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, set up a government without a representative assembly, and extended Quebec's boundary to the Ohio River.
Had a profound influenced on educated Americans in the 1760s and 1770s- the decades of revolutionary thought and action that finally culminated in the American Revolution.
Ohio River Valley
French built forts here to stop the westward growth of the British colonies.
Hoping to stop the French from completing work on Fort Duquene and thereby win control of the Ohio River Valley, the governor of Virginia sent a small militia under the command of a young colonel who was a future president.
In the conservative party of the delegates in the First Continental Congress. He favored a mild statement of protest. Also has a treaty named after him.
First Continental Congress
The purpose of this convention was to respond to what the delegates viewed as Britain's alarming threats to their liberties. (The Intolerable Acts) Most American's had no desire for independence. They simply wanted to protest parliamentary infringements of their rights and restore the relationship with Britain. This took place in Philadelphia.
Second Continental Congress
Soon after the fighting broke out in Massachusetts, delegates met in Philadelphia. The congress was divided. One group of delegates, mainly from New England, thought the colonies should declare their independence. Another group, mainly from the middle colonies, hoped the conflict could be resolved by negotiating a new relationship with Great Britain.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
This petition urged the king to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights.
Olive Branch Petition
The delegates voted to send this to King George III, in which they pledged their loyalty and asked the king to intercede with Parliament to secure peace and the protection of colonial rights.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms
Congress adopted this and collar on the colonies to provide troops. George Washington was appointed the commander- in- chief of a new colonial army and sent to Boston to lead the Massachusetts militia and volunteer units from other colonies. An American navy and marine corps was organized to attack British shipping.
One of 5 delegates to form a committee to write a statement in support of Lee's resolution. The declaration drafted by this person listed specific grievances agains George III's government and also expressed the the basic principles that justified revolution.
Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson listed specific grievances agains George III's government and also expressed the the basic principles that justified revolution. "We hold these truths to be self- evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
Land Ordinance of 1785
Congress established a policy for surveying and selling the western lands. The policy provided for setting aside one section of land in each township for public education. Was under the article of confederation.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
For the large territory lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River, the congress passed an ordinance that set the rules for creating new states. Granted limited self-government to the developing territory and prohibited slavery in the region.
Lexington and Concord
First battles of the revolutionary war. "Shot heard around the world".
The last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Was fought in Virginia on the shores of Chesapeake Bay. Strongly supported by French naval and military forces, Washington's army forced the surrender of a large British army commanded by General Charles Cornwallis.
First true battle of the Revolutionary war. Actually took place on Breed's hill. British force attacked the colonists' position and managed to take the hill, suffering over a thousand casualties. Americans claimed a victory of sorts, having succeeded in inflicting have losses on the attacking British.
The turning point for the American revolutionaries came with a victory at this battle in upstate New York. The diplomatic outcome of this battle was more important than the military result. New of the suprising American victory persuaded France to join in the war against Britain
Articles of Confederation
As Jefferson was writing the Declaration of Independence, John Dickinson drafted the first constitution for the United States as a nation. Congress modified Dickinson's plan to protect the powers of the individual states. Ratification was delayed by a dispute over the vast American Indian lands west of the Alleghenies. Established a central government that consisted of just one body, a congress. Won the war, Land Ordinance of 1785, and Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Issues with financial, foreign, and domestic things.
One house legislature.
Thomas Paine- Common Sense
Argued in clear and forceful language for the colonies becoming independent states and breaking all political ties with the British monarchy. He argued that it was contrary to common sense for a large continent to be ruled by a small and distant island and for people to pledge allegiance to a king whose government was corrupt and whose laws were unreasonable.
Captain Daniel Shays led other farmers in an uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money. When Shays and his followers attempted to seize weapons front the Springfield armory, the state militia of Massachusetts broke this rebellion.
Most were from New England states and Virginia. Most of the soldiers were reluctant to travel outside of their own region. They would serve in local militia units for short periods, leave to work their farms, and then return to duty. General Washington never had more than 20,000 regular troops under his command at one time. His army was short of supplies, poorly equipped, and rarely paid.
Also called tories. Almost 60,000 tore is fought next to British soldiers, supplied them with arms and food, and joined in raiding parties that pillaged Patriot homes and farms. There were about 520,000- 780,000 tories. Mostly in New York, New Jersey, and Georgia. Most were wealthy government and Anglican clergy.
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton. Stronger central government was needed to maintain order and preserve the Union. Emphasized the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Strong leaders and well organized. Mostly lived on the Atlantic Coast. A key element in their campaign for the Constitution was a series of highly persuasive essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Tended to be small farmers and settlers on the western frontier. George Mason, Patrick Henry, James Winthrop, and John Hancock. Though a stronger central government would destroy the work of the Revolution, limit democracy, and restrict states' rights, argued that the proposed Constitution contained no protection of individual rights, gave the central government more power than the British ever had. Poorly organized, slow to respond.
Supported Thomas Jefferson and tried to elect candidates in different who opposed Hamilton's financial program. Were strongest in southern states and on the western frontier and argued for states' rights. Wanted a weak central government. Pro-french. Oppose a national bank and oppose tariffs. Followed James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
"Father of the Constitution" Strong nationalist. Wrote the Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. A democratic- republican.
Helped write the federalist papers. Persuaded others to revise the Articles of confederation. First secretary of the treasury. Wanted to pay off the national debt, protect the young nation's "infant industries", and create a national bank for depositing government funds. A federalist as opposed to a democratic- republican.
Bill of Rights
Wanted by anti-federalists. Federalists believed they didn't need this because the people would be electing people into congress. Drafted mostly by JamesMadison. Provided protection against abuses of power by the central government. 10 major amendments.
Washington's farewell address
Don't get involved in European affairs, don't make permanent alliances in foreign affairs, don't form political parties, don't fall into sectionalism.
Authorized the president to deport aliens considered dangerous and to detain enemy aliens in time of war.
Made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed fines or imprisonment for editors who violated the law.
Kentucky (Thomas Jefferson) and Virginia (James Madison) Resolution
Declared that the states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government, and, therefore, if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify the federal law.
Make the federal law no longer relevant. "Go against the law"
It meant that the thirteen states, by creating the federal government, had entered into a contract about its jurisdiction. The national government was the agent of the states. This meant that the individual states were the final judges of the national government's actions. The theory was the basis for the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions passed in 1798. The compact theory was used to try to stop the Federalist abuses like the Alien and Sedition Acts.
a tax on exports or imports
This was established by Hamilton and opposed by Jefferson as a way to strength the economy of the US.
The federalists. Create strong central government.
Democratic- Republicans. Create weak central government.
"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution; part of loose interpretation
powers stated in the Constitution; part of strict interpretation
Its representation plan favored large states. More representation for the larger states.
New Jersey Plan
Everyone has equal representation. Favored smaller states as to representation
"The great compromise" developed by Roger Sherman. Provided for a two- house congress. In the senate, states would have equal representation, but in the house of representatives, each state would be represented according to the size of its population.
Counted each enslaved individual as three fifths of a person for the purposes of determining a state's level of taxation and representation.
Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass excise taxes on the sale of whiskey.A group of people in Pennsylvania refused to pay the excise tax. Attacked the revenue collectors.
Proclamation of Neutrality
Issued by Washington stating that America would not take place in the French revolution.
Appealed directly to the American people to support the French Cause.
Britain agreed to evacuate its post on the US western frontier but the treaty said nothing about British seizures of American merchant ships.
Spain agreed to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American Trade. The right of deposit was granted to Americans so that they could transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government.
John Adams sent a delegation over to Paris to negotiate with the french government so that US merchant ships would stop being seized by French warships and privateers. Requested bribes as the basis for entering into negotiations which infuriated colonists.