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Immunology Module 4 Quiz
Terms in this set (20)
Cells that secrete antibodies are called:
B cell derived plasma cells
Alleles for MHC genes have ___________ expression, meaning that the product (polypeptide) of both parental genes are expressed on the cell surface.
One way in which the immune system is able to generate antibodies of different specificities is by generating different combinations of heavy-chain and light-chain V regions. This is known as:
Antibody binding to a pathogen surface is greatly enhanced when both antigen-binding sites of the antibody are engaged at once, a feature known as bivalent binding. It is possible for antibodies to bind bivalently to a wide variety of components on many different pathogen surfaces due to the flexibility in the protein at the hinge region and at the V-C junction.
_______ is expressed by T cells whose function is to activate other cells.
Linear, triangular, and square forms of antigen:antibody complexes exist.
___________ is expressed by cytotoxic T cells.
The antibody protein has two functional domains, one for antigen binding and a second to confer specific effector functions. These two functional domains are encoded by the antibody light chain and antibody heavy chain polypeptides, respectively.
Antibody heavy and light chain polypeptides consist of repeated domains, each of which is ~110 amino acids and folds up into a compact three-dimensional structure known as an 'immunoglobulin domain.' These immunoglobulin domains are:
____________ molecules present peptides from pathogens, commonly viruses, to CD8 T cells, which are specialized to kill any cell that they specifically recognize.
MHC class I
When a B cell differentiates into a plasma cell, it goes from expressing membrane-bound IgM to making mostly the secreted form of IgM. A deletion of the first polyadenylation site in the μ heavy chain gene would prevent activated B cells from making the secreted form of IgM.
The ______ shepherds the splicing of the immunoglobulin gene segments
The most abundant antibody in blood is:
In spite of their low affinity for binding to their antigen, IgM antibodies can be quite effective at promoting the elimination of extracellular bacterial infections. This is due to:
Multivalent binding of IgM pentamers to repetitive epitopes on bacterial surfaces
Classical MHC molecules function as peptide-binding receptors that present these peptides to alpha:beta T cells for recognition by alpha:beta T-cell receptors. MHC molecules can be detected in lineages as evolutionarily old as sharks, the same time at which T-cell receptors can be identified. Examination of shark MHC proteins indicates that these molecules likely function identically to human MHC molecules. This conclusion is based on:
The conservation of amino acid residues important in peptide binding in both shark and human MHC proteins
The variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) of lampreys represent a highly diverse set of proteins with structural similarity to the mammalian Toll-like receptors. Yet the VLRs and the lymphocytes that produce them are thought to be components of the lamprey's adaptive immune system. This is because:
VLRs are clonally distributed such that each lymphocyte expresses only one form of VLR.
Most eukaryotic genes are encoded in a set of exons that are brought together to form a contiguous protein coding sequence by the process of mRNA splicing. In contrast, immunoglobulin genes use somatic recombination of gene segments and not mRNA splicing to generate the final mRNA that is translated into protein.
Where are single-stranded cuts made in the DNA backbone during the cleavage step of somatic recombination?
Between each coding segment and its RSS
Some pathogenic microorganisms encode proteins, such as the Staphylococcus Protein A, that bind to immunoglobulin constant region domains with high affinity. These microbial proteins provide a benefit to the microorganism by:
Preventing antibodies bound to the microbe from binding to Fc receptors on phagocytes
In order to respond effectively to a great diversity of parasite antigens, chordates have evolved several mechanisms of __________ to generate potentially infinite possible receptors.
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