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108 terms

Sociology #4

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Sociologically, "what is family?"
Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption
Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from their kin?
the nuclear family
In Bongo Bongo male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family realtionship defined as...
polygyny
In America and many other parts of the world the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This is a marital practice called ________.
endogamy
People being sexually attracted to one another and idealizing each other is called...
romantic love
The term family is one difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.
true
Boomerang children is a term used to refer to children.
between 24 to 29 who still live with their parents
The group with the highest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ____________ .
African American
The group with the lowest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ____________ .
Asian American
Sociologically, what is a blended family?
the husband or wife bringing a child into the new family from a prior relationship
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
both the bride and groom are older than at any other time
Same sex marriages are more likely to break up than heterosexual marriages.
true
Research shows most divorced fathers eventually stop seeing their children altogether.
true
According to the findings of Diana Russell, who are the most common incest offenders?
uncles
What do sociologists argue as being the factor most related to violence against women?
the sexist structure of society
What is the skipped generation family?
grandparents act as parents rearing their children's children
What is the main difference between cohabitation and marriage?
there is a greater degree of financial and emotional commitment in marriage
In which families would elders play the most active role in rearing their grandchildren?
Native American
Of the following, in which group is a woman more likely to marry a man with less education than she has?
African American
The chances of divorce increase as the level of one's education and income increases?
false
What was necessary for education to develop as a separate social institution ?
society had to develop a sufficient surplus to devote some people to teaching
What social event created the belief that formal education was essential to the well being of society?
the industrialization of society
Who was the educator from Massachusetts. who, in 1837, proposed the common school to be supported through the tax dollars and established throughout the state?
Horace Mann
The hunting-gathering societies have no seperate social institution called education.
true
What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation's needs?
it is a relfection of the nation's culture and economy
How did Horace Mann propose that the common schools he established be funded?
public taxation
What is the process by which schools pass a society's core values from one generation to the next?
cultural transmission of values
What is the most popular way to accompolish gatekeeping?
tracking or sorting students into different education programs
A central sociological principle is that a nation's education system reflects its culture
True
Social integration promotes a student's dedication to a national identity
True
A form of gatekeeping that uses diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for a job is called ________.
credentialing
What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hiddent curriculum?
it promotes social inequalities
According to sociologist Harry Gracey, kindergarten is somewhat like boot camp for the entire educational system because the student...
is taught to follow orders without questioning authority
The most significant predictor of whether a student will attend college is his/her ___________.
family background
Who developed the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy that explains why originally false assumptions become true because the outcome was predicted?
Robert Merton
Tracking is a form of gatekeeping in which students are sorted by their perceived ablities rather than their achieved ablities
True
To qualify as distance learning, what needs to be in effect?
students are not physically present with the instructor
What is the concept that some jobs require few skills and can be performed by people of less intelligence?
higher intellectual levels
Prior to a formal system of eduation that included schools, teachers,and diplomas how was the manifest function of education accomplished?
through a process of acculturation
What is the main focus relfected by the education system in Japan?
a group centered approach that stresses uniformity
Why is religion classified as being a universal social institution?
it meets basic human needs
What is the primary reason sociologist study religion?
to study the role that religion plays in people's lives
What was the influential book on religion published in 1912 by Emile Durkheim?
The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?
profane
How would sociologists classify communism in respect to its religious qualities?
it is a functional equivalent of religion
What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God.
religious experience
When viewing communism as a functional equivalent of religion which book provides its most sacred writings?
The Commnist Manifesto
What is the transformation of traditional socieities called?
modernization
What is the world's largest religion, boasting two billion members?
Christianity
What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?
the Protestant Ethic
During the first thousand years of Christianity there were only one church organization, directed from Rome
True
Karl Marx was a vowed atheist who characterized religion as the opiate of the people.
True
The original goal of the Reformation led by Martin Luther was to _______.
restructure the Roman Catholic church
The belief that all objects in the world have spirits is
animism
What is a government that is based on the principle that God is the King
a theocracy
What do Hindus call the cycle of life, death, and rebirth?
reincarnation
Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?
a new or different religion
What is the process by which spiritual concerns are replaced by worldly concerns?
secularization
What is an outstanding gift or exceptional quality someone possesses that draws others to ot both the person and their message?
charisma
A fundamental effort of cults is evangelism, the active recruitment of new members.
True
The perception of health varies considerably among societies of the world. The definition of what constitutes health and illness is most defined by which of the following variables?
the culture of society
Which society would be home to a medical expert known as a shaman?
tribal
The definition of health and illness varies from culture to culture and group to group. This variance in definition is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interactionism
Which component of the health continuum did the author add to the three components identified by the World Health Organization?
spiritual
What was the contribution Talcott Parsons made as a sociologist to the understanding of health and medicine?
He introduced the concept of the sick role.
There is a major exam scheduled in today's sociology class, but Donald has a serious case of the flu. Donald's professor excused him from the exam. Donald then made an appointment with the health center, and spent the next three days in bed. This is an example of ________ in practice.
the sick role
Based on gender differences, why do women invoke the sick role more than men?
Men see a conflict between the sick role and the macho role.
What is the relationship between industrialization and life expectancy?
It is a direct relationship.
Of the following nations, which one has the highest infant mortality rate?
the United States
The ________ controls the education and licensing of physicians in the United States.
American Medical Association
According to symbolic interactionists, how did physicians in the United States work to eliminate midwives from assisting in childbirth?
physicians redefined pregnancy and childbirth as a medical condition.
Payment to a physician in exchange for diagnosis and treatment is called ________.
fee-for-service
What is epidemiology?
the study of disease and disability patterns in a population
What is the relationship sociologists have discovered when examining mental health problems and social class?
an inverse correlation
According to your text, how have physicians responded to malpractice suits to protect themselves from patients?
They have engaged in ordering additional tests only as a defensive strategy.
Dr. Smith owns stock in the XYZ drug company. The majority of her patients have been prescribed a highpriced medication that is only manufactured by XYZ. This situation illustrates which of the following points?
The medical cash machine generates conflicts of interest.
Medical specialists, medial equipment corporations, and pharmaceutical companies have all been associated with ________?
white-collar crimes
Which of the following examples would best illustrate the functionalist perspective of the medicalization of society?
The medicalization of baldness broadens the customer base of the medical establishment
Many of the physical signs of aging such as balding, wrinkles, and a sagging chin or buttocks are now treated by physicians. This process of turning a normal characteristic into a medical matter is termed ________.
medicalization
Dr. Jeckyl has a patient who is terminally ill and in great pain. In order to relieve him of needless suffering, Dr. Jeckyl injected him with a lethal dose of morphine that will make it look like the patient slipped away. What is this process called?
active euthanasia
In which two countries is euthanasia legal?
Holland; Belgium
Selma works for a company that pays a set fee to the Midwest Physicians Clinic to take care of their employees' needs. This type of medical care is known as a ________.
health maintenance organization
The area of the world most devastated by the AIDS virus is ________.
sub-Saharan Africa
The greenhouse effect can best be described by which of the following?
a warming of the earth that may change the globe's climate and melt the polar ice caps
In the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the medical staff at Tuskegee University . . .
did not treat men infected with syphilis so they could follow the disease.
In 1918, 500,000 Americans and 20 to 40 million people worldwide died in an epidemic caused by which of the following diseases?
the flu
What is demography?
the study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations
What is the Malthus Theorem?
the idea that population grows geometrically and the food supply increases arithmetically
Who was the English economist who saw the surging growth of the world population as a sign of global doom?
Thomas Malthus
What is a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, resulting in an acceleration of growth during the final stages?
exponential growth curve
From the beginning of time, how long did it take the world's population to reach its first billion people?
1800 AD
In the demographic transition theory, a "population explosion" traditionally occurs in the ________ stage.
second
What continent is suggested to have the greatest incidence of population shrinkage?
Europe
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children?
Large families are rewarded socially and economically.
The percentage of population by _____ and _____ are the variables most often included on a population pyramid?
sex; age
A declining standard of living is most likely to create . . .
political instability
What term do demographers use to refer to the number of children an average woman bears?
fertility rate
In Least Industrialized Nations and among many traditional groups, women bear 20 to 22 children in their lifetime. This is near the maximum number of children that women are capable of bearing, which is referred to as ________.
fecundity
To determine a country's growth rate, what three variables would a demographer use?
fertility, mortality, migration
The region of the world with the highest number of legal immigrants is ___________.
North America
Carla has been asked to figure out last year's growth rate for the United States. She is using a formula that starts with births, subtracts the number of deaths, and then adds the net migration. What is another name for this formula?
the basic demographic equation
People who occupy the same housing unit
Household
Often in impoverished neighborhoods where people help each other out and consider each other a part of their extended family
Fictive kin
Emphasis on Latino male strength, sexual vigor, and dominance...but it decreases in each generation
Machismo
The belief that modern ways of life threaten religion and that the faith as it was originally practiced should be originally restored
Muslim Fundamentalism
Shi'ites
more conservative
Sunni
more liberal
> 10 million residents
Megacity