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multiple alleles

three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait

sex chromosome

a pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female


a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome


a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait

genetic disorder

an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes


a chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait


a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

selective breeding

the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation


a selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed


a selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed


an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced

genetic engineering

the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits

gene therapy

the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder


all of the DNA in one cell of an organism

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