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a direct juxtaposition of structurally parallel words, phrases, or clauses for the purpose of contrast.
a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. It may be used for either serious or comic effect.
when a situation turns out differently from what one would
normally expect - though often the twist is oddly appropriate.
when a character or speaker says or does something that has
different meanings from what he or she thinks it means, though the audience and other characters understand the full implications of the speech or action.
a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression.
when the elements of a statement contradict each other. Although the statement may appear illogical, impossible, or absurd, it turns out to have a coherent meaning that reveals a hidden truth.
a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics.
the deliberate use of any element of language more than once - sound, word, phrase, sentence, grammatical pattern, or rhythmical pattern.
a comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words "like" or "as." It is a definitely stated comparison in which the author says one things is like another.
similar to synecdoche, but in metonymy the name of one things is applied to another thing with which it is closely associated.
the writer's or speaker's attitude toward a subject, character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the author's choice of words and detail. Tone can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc.
the opposite of hyperbole. It is a kind of irony that deliberately
represents something as being much less than it really is.
contains language that creates an elevated tone. It is free of slang, idioms, colloquialisms, and contractions. It often contains polysyllabic words, sophisticated syntax, and elegant word choice.
uses standard language and vocabulary without elaborate words and may include contractions.
the language of everyday use. It is relaxed and conversational.
It often includes common and simple words, idioms, slang, jargon, and contractions.
refers to a group of recently coined words often used in informal
situations. Slang words often come and go quickly, passing in and out of usage within months or years.
nonstandard, often regional, ways of using
language appropriate to informal or conversational speech and writing.
a nonstandard subgroup of a language with its own vocabulary
and grammatical features. Writers often use regional dialects or dialects that reveal a person's economic or social class.
refers to language that denotes ideas, emotions,
conditions, or concepts that are intangible.
the exact, literal definition of a word independent of any
emotional association or secondary meaning.
the implicit rather than explicit meaning of a word; consists
of the suggestions, associations, and emotional overtones attached to a word.
contains two independent clauses joined by a
coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon.
contains two or more independent clauses
and one or more subordinate clauses.
makes complete sense if brought to a close before
the actual ending. The sentence could end before the modifying phrases without losing its coherence.
constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the
subject. This is a device in which typical sentence patterns are reversed to create an emphatic or rhythmic effect.
a device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or
phrases are placed next to one another, often creating an effect of surprise and wit.
Parallel structure (parallelism):
a grammatical or structural similarity
between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased.
a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis.
a question that requires no answer. It is used to draw
attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement.
a sentence strategy in which the arrangement of
ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first.
the deliberate use of many conjunctions for special
emphasis - to highlight quantity or mass of detail or to creat a flowing, continuous sentence pattern.
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