Chapter2 - The System Unit: Processing and Memory
Terms in this set (57)
The smallest unit of data a digital computer can recognize; represented by a 0 or a 1.
A group of bits.
Approximately 1 thousand bytes (1,024 bytes to be precise).
Approximately 1 million bytes
Approximately 1 billion bytes.
Approximately 1 trillion bytes.
Approximately 1,000 terabytes
Approximately 1,000 petabytes.
Approximately 1,000 exabytes.
Approximately 1,000 zettabytes
Decimal numbering system
The numbering system that represents all numbers using 10 symbols (0-9).
Binary numbering system
The numbering system that represents all numbers using just two symbols (0 and 1).
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A fixed-length, binary coding system used to represent text-based data for computer processing on many types of computers.
An international coding system that can be used to represent text-based data in any written language.
A binary-based language for representing computer programs that the computer can execute directly.
The main box of a computer that houses the CPU, motherboard, memory, and other devices.
The main circuit board of a computer, located inside the system unit, to which all computer system components connect.
A group of fast memory circuitry located on or near the CPU to help speed up processing.
The amount of data that can be transferred in a given period of time; also referred to as throughput.
A characteristic of memory or storage in which data is not retained when the power to the computer is tuned off.
A characteristic of memory or storage in which data is retained even when the power to the computer is tuned off.
RAM (random access memory)
Chips connected to the motherboard that provide a temporary location for the computer to hold data and program instructions while they are needed.
High-speed memory built into the CPU that temporarily stores data during processing.
ROM (read-only memory)
Nonvolatile chips located on the motherboard into which data or programs have been permanently stored.
Nonvolatile memory chips that can be used for storage by the computer or suer; can be built into a computer or a storage medium.
A location on the motherboard into which expansion cards are inserted.
A circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot location on a computer's motherboard to add additional functionality or to connect a peripheral device to that computer.
A module that can be inserted into a computer's ExpressCard slot to add additional functionality or to connect a peripheral device to that computer; commonly used with notebook computers.
An electronic path on the motherboard or within the CPU or other computer component along which data is transferred.
Bus width is the number of wires in the bus over which data can travel.(A wider bus allows more data to be transferred at one time)
A bus on the motherboard used to connects peripheral devices.
The connection between the CPU and RAM.
Frontside bus (FSB)
The bus that connects the CPU (via the I/O bridge) to the rest of the bus architecture.
PCI Express (PCIe) bus
One of the buses most commonly used to connect peripheral devices.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
A universal bus used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices to a computer without requiring the use of additional expansion cards.
A high-speed bus standard often used to connect digital video cameras and other multimedia hardware to a computer.
A connector on the exterior of a computer to which a device may be attached.
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
The part of a CPU core that performs logical operations and integer arithmetic.
Floating point unit (FPU)
The part of a CPU core that performs decimal arithmetic.
The part of a CPU core that coordinates its operations.
The part of a CPU core that attempts to retrieve data and instructions before they are needed for processing in order to avoid delays.
The part of a CPU core that translates instructions into a form that can be proceeded by the ALU and FPU.
Bus interface unit
The part of a CPU core that allows it to communicate with other CPU components.
The timing mechanism within the computer system that synchronizes the computer's operations.
The series of operations involved int eh execution of a single machine level instruction.
The capability of a CPU to begin processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction completes the first stage of the machine cycle.
(Allows multiple instructions to be processed at one time)
The capability to use multiple processors or multiple processing cores in a single computer, usually to process multiple jobs at one time faster than could be performed with a single processor.
A processing technique that uses multiple processors or multiple processing cores simultaneously, usually to process a single job as fast as possible.
The science of creating tiny computers and opponents by working at the individual atomic and molecular levels.
Tiny, hollow tubes made of carbon atoms.
A technology that applies the principles of quantum physics and quantum mechanics to computers to direct atoms or nuclei to work together as quantum bits (quits), which function simultaneously as the computer's processor and memory.
A computer that uses light, such as from laser beams or infrared beams, to perform digital computations.
Used to represent data and programs in a manner understood by the computer
The amount of data that a CPU can manipulate at one time
(Typically 32 or 64 bits)
typical CPU components
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
Registers and Internal Cache Memory
Bus Interface Unit
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
Consists of a variety of circuitry and components packaged together