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amines, peptides, proteins, and steroids

endocrine glands produce hormones:

enzyme systems

hormones effect ________ of target cells

Pituitary gland

gland extended off of the hypothalamus, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone


(hypophyseal stalk) connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland

posterior pituitary gland

neurohypohysis/ pars nervosa

anterior pituitary gland

adenohypophysis/pars distalis

ADH and oxytocin

secretions of the posterior pituitary gland

diabetes insupidus

caused by lack of ADH; individuals secrete large amounts of diluted urine (polyuria) b/c of loss of facultative water reabsorption


stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in uterus at time of parturition. also stimulates ejection of milk from lactating mammilary gland of nursing mother by suckling reflex.


releasing hormones are produced in the _______, then secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal

somatotrophic hormone

aka growth hormone; stimulates liver secretions of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1); maintains amino acid uptake into cells and protein synthesis in all cells; decreases glucose utilization with in cells as a source of energy metab.; stimulates glycogenolysis; stimulates lipolysis


stimulates growth of long bones and cartilage


in liver; raises blood glucose levels; beaks down glycogen into glucose.

gonadotrophic hormones

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing hormone (LH)


stimulates production of eggs in ovary, stimulates secretion of estrogens by ovarian follicle; involved in sperm production in the testis


aids in maturation of ovarian follicle, induces ovulation, stimulates production of corpus luteum, secretion of estrogens and progesterone from corpus luteum


aka Interstitial cell stimulating hormone; causes interstitial (Leydig) cells to secrete testosterone from testis.

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

stimulates growth and maintenance of adrenal cortex cells; stimulates production and secretions of hormones from adrenal cortex gland (adrenocorticosteroid hormones)

thyrotrophic hormone/thyroid stimulating hormone

maintains normal function of the thyroid gland; stimulates production and secretion of 2/3 of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)

lactogenic hormone/prolactin (dopamine)

stimulates production of milk by the lactating breast.

prolactin inhibiting hormone

prevents secretion of prolactin during non-preggo state.





T3, T4, calcitonin

hormones secreted by thyroid gland

TRH from hypothal --> enters HHP --> TRH to anterior pituitary --> TRH stimulates APT to release TSH--> TSH circulates in blood -->reaches thyroid gland --> stimulates secretion of T3-T4

control of T3-T4 secretion


increases rate of CHO metabolism in ALL BODY CELLS except in brain, spleen, and testis; maintain body temp through CHO metab.; stimulate protein synthesis,

simple goiter

form of hypothyroidism; enlarged gland due to lack of iodine in diet

idiopathic Non-toxic goiter (myxedema)

lack of T3-T4 secretion: adults, low metabolic rate, low body temp, bradycardia, lethargic, edematous tissue (face) (form of hypothyroidism)


thyroid gland does not develop normally, so a lack of T3-T4 secretion at birth (fetus and infants)
physical development impaired (dwarfism)
neurological development impaired (mental retardation)

exopthalmic goiter (graves disease)

autoimmune disease, thyroid stimulating iminuloglobaline (TSI) is present and shouldn't be. (overstimulates thyroid gland and secretes too much T3-T4)


protruding eyes


increases calcium levels in blood (if calcium levels below normal) opposite of calcitonin

anterior pituitary

adrenal cortex secretions under control by ________.

preganglionic nerve fibers of sympathetic nervous system

adrenal medulla secretions under control by _________.


hormones of adrenal medulla


increases heart rate and force of contraction, constricts arterioles in visceral organs and skin; dilates arterioles of heart, skeletal muscles, and liver; relaxes visceral smooth muscle of respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems, and increases rate of metabolism (glycogenolysis)

stronger peripheral vasoconstriction

actions of norepinepherine similar to epinepherine, except:

zona glomerulosa

outer layer of adrenal cortex


z. glomerulosa secretes mineral corticoids of which 95% is _____.

zona fasciculata

middle layer of adrenal cortex

anterior pituitary

z. fasciculata under influence of __________.; secretes glurocartocoids.

cortisol and corticosterone



stimulates gluconeogenesis between meals; stimulates breakdown of fat to form FAs and glycerol; stimulates anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic reactions

decreasing permeability of blood capillaries

cortisol stimulates anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic reactions by:


prevents the formation of fat by breaking it down into FAs and glycerols, which can be synthesized into glucose in the liver

zona reticularis

inner layer of adrenal cortex

zona reticularis

secretes androgen-like hormones but of NO PRACTICAL VALUE except disease conditions.

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