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endocrine system

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amines, peptides, proteins, and steroids
endocrine glands produce hormones:
enzyme systems
hormones effect ________ of target cells
Pituitary gland
gland extended off of the hypothalamus, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
infundibulum
(hypophyseal stalk) connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland
posterior pituitary gland
neurohypohysis/ pars nervosa
anterior pituitary gland
adenohypophysis/pars distalis
ADH and oxytocin
secretions of the posterior pituitary gland
diabetes insupidus
caused by lack of ADH; individuals secrete large amounts of diluted urine (polyuria) b/c of loss of facultative water reabsorption
oxytocin
stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in uterus at time of parturition. also stimulates ejection of milk from lactating mammilary gland of nursing mother by suckling reflex.
hypothalamus
releasing hormones are produced in the _______, then secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal
somatotrophic hormone
aka growth hormone; stimulates liver secretions of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1); maintains amino acid uptake into cells and protein synthesis in all cells; decreases glucose utilization with in cells as a source of energy metab.; stimulates glycogenolysis; stimulates lipolysis
IGF-1
stimulates growth of long bones and cartilage
glycogenolysis
in liver; raises blood glucose levels; beaks down glycogen into glucose.
gonadotrophic hormones
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing hormone (LH)
FSH
stimulates production of eggs in ovary, stimulates secretion of estrogens by ovarian follicle; involved in sperm production in the testis
LH
aids in maturation of ovarian follicle, induces ovulation, stimulates production of corpus luteum, secretion of estrogens and progesterone from corpus luteum
LH
aka Interstitial cell stimulating hormone; causes interstitial (Leydig) cells to secrete testosterone from testis.
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
stimulates growth and maintenance of adrenal cortex cells; stimulates production and secretions of hormones from adrenal cortex gland (adrenocorticosteroid hormones)
thyrotrophic hormone/thyroid stimulating hormone
maintains normal function of the thyroid gland; stimulates production and secretion of 2/3 of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
lactogenic hormone/prolactin (dopamine)
stimulates production of milk by the lactating breast.
prolactin inhibiting hormone
prevents secretion of prolactin during non-preggo state.
tetra-idothyronine
T4
Tri-idothyronine
T3
T3, T4, calcitonin
hormones secreted by thyroid gland
TRH from hypothal --> enters HHP --> TRH to anterior pituitary --> TRH stimulates APT to release TSH--> TSH circulates in blood -->reaches thyroid gland --> stimulates secretion of T3-T4
control of T3-T4 secretion
T3-T4
increases rate of CHO metabolism in ALL BODY CELLS except in brain, spleen, and testis; maintain body temp through CHO metab.; stimulate protein synthesis,
simple goiter
form of hypothyroidism; enlarged gland due to lack of iodine in diet
idiopathic Non-toxic goiter (myxedema)
lack of T3-T4 secretion: adults, low metabolic rate, low body temp, bradycardia, lethargic, edematous tissue (face) (form of hypothyroidism)
cretinism
thyroid gland does not develop normally, so a lack of T3-T4 secretion at birth (fetus and infants)
physical development impaired (dwarfism)
neurological development impaired (mental retardation)
exopthalmic goiter (graves disease)
autoimmune disease, thyroid stimulating iminuloglobaline (TSI) is present and shouldn't be. (overstimulates thyroid gland and secretes too much T3-T4)
exopthalmous
protruding eyes
parathormone
increases calcium levels in blood (if calcium levels below normal) opposite of calcitonin
anterior pituitary
adrenal cortex secretions under control by ________.
preganglionic nerve fibers of sympathetic nervous system
adrenal medulla secretions under control by _________.
epinepherine/norepinepherine
hormones of adrenal medulla
epinepherine
increases heart rate and force of contraction, constricts arterioles in visceral organs and skin; dilates arterioles of heart, skeletal muscles, and liver; relaxes visceral smooth muscle of respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems, and increases rate of metabolism (glycogenolysis)
stronger peripheral vasoconstriction
actions of norepinepherine similar to epinepherine, except:
zona glomerulosa
outer layer of adrenal cortex
aldosterone
z. glomerulosa secretes mineral corticoids of which 95% is _____.
zona fasciculata
middle layer of adrenal cortex
anterior pituitary
z. fasciculata under influence of __________.; secretes glurocartocoids.
cortisol and corticosterone
glurocartocoids
cortisol
stimulates gluconeogenesis between meals; stimulates breakdown of fat to form FAs and glycerol; stimulates anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic reactions
decreasing permeability of blood capillaries
cortisol stimulates anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic reactions by:
cortisol
prevents the formation of fat by breaking it down into FAs and glycerols, which can be synthesized into glucose in the liver
zona reticularis
inner layer of adrenal cortex
zona reticularis
secretes androgen-like hormones but of NO PRACTICAL VALUE except disease conditions.