The insanity plea is a legal defense for behavior based on evidence of
-a psychological disorder.
-harm to self or others.
a psychological disorder.
Hippocrates proposed that psychological disorders might
-signify divine possession.
-signify demonic possession.
-be cured by exorcism.
-be caused by a brain abnormality.
be caused by a brain abnormality.
The news just reported that a hurricane is headed toward your home. You feel anxious and can't decide what to do first to prepare. This response is indicative of
You are suddenly overcome with fear and feel like you are having a heart attack because of the chest pains, dizziness, and weakness. After several minutes the episode passes, but you experience several unexpected reoccurrences over the next few months. This indicates
-ideas of persecution.
-unusual behavior that is likely abnormal.
unusual behavior that is likely abnormal.
A man spends several hours in front of his mirror each morning in an effort to put every hair on his head in its exact place before leaving for work. This concern for trivial details suggests
A woman has been brought to the emergency room because she says that she has been seeing green ooze running down the walls of her bedroom. She is demonstrating
-none of the above.
A man preparing for his professional licensing examination becomes agitated and threatens to kill himself if he doesn't pass the exam on the first try. He is subsequently admitted for a psychiatric examination, and the doctor learns that the young man has neglected everything because he is terrified of failing his examination. The doctor most likely believes that the man exhibits __________ behavior.
The DSM-IV classification system contains information about
The DSM-IV groups disorders on the basis of
-assumptions about their causes.
-the type of personality associated with each.
-the theoretical orientation of their prescribed treatments.
__________ is among a group of mental health professionals who believe that the categories described in the DSM should not be classified as "disorders" because mental health issues are not "sicknesses."
Claustrophobia is described as a fear of
-spiders and snakes.
A man cancels an important business trip to the mountains because he cannot control his fear of heights. He goes to a doctor to discuss the problem. What diagnosis is the doctor likely to consider?
A woman has had a series of panic attacks and lives in fear of future attacks. In addition, she is now afraid to leave her home because she is afraid of having an attack in public. She discusses the problem with her doctor. What diagnosis is most likely?
-panic attack with anxiety
-panic disorder with agoraphobia
-panic attack with fears of persecution
-panic disorder with social phobia
panic disorder with agoraphobia
The central feature of a generalized anxiety disorder is that the anxiety is
-attached to a specific object or event.
-characterized by intermittent attacks.
-based on childhood trauma.
It is believed that __________ tend to reduce the anxiety connected with obsessions.
The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a/n
-all of the above.
Sheryl's mom always screamed whenever she saw a spider. Sheryl now has the same reaction to spiders. According to __________ theorist, Sheryl acquired the behavior pattern by watching her mom.
Twin studies and adoption studies are methods to discover the role of __________ factors in the development of psychological disorders.
Preston experienced times when he couldn't remember what he had done. Sometimes he found things in the house that weren't his and mail with someone else's name on it. Preston seems to be experiencing
-dissociative identity disorder.
dissociative identity disorder.
Amnesia is frequently associated with __________ disorders.
Skepticism has surrounded the dissociative disorders because
-there has been a great increase in the number of cases after media coverage of a client's story.
-therapists may actually encourage the client's report of symptoms associated with this type of disorder.
-client's are sometimes ambivalent regarding the truth in their stories.
-all of the above.
- there has been a great increase in the number of cases after media coverage of a client's story.
- therapists may actually encourage the client's report of symptoms associated with this type of disorder.
- client's are sometimes ambivalent regarding the truth in their stories.
__________ involves a claim of psychological disability in
-The insanity plea
Somatoform disorders involve
-the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
-a physical dysfunction.
-the transformation of anger into a physical illness.
the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
Somatoform disorders are often
-exhibited by people who are faking symptoms to avoid responsibility.
-an unconscious attempt to gain attention or avoid anxiety provoking situations.
-found to be physically based.
-exaggerated by education.
an unconscious attempt to gain attention or avoid anxiety provoking situations.
Individuals who are least likely to exhibit conversion disorders include
-soldiers in combat.
-concentration camp prisoners.
People diagnosed with __________ insist that they are suffering from a serious disease or medical condition. They are known to seek help from many doctors, and personal relationships suffer as they expect consideration for their supposed illness.
__________ thinking is a factor in both depression and major depression.
The symptoms of rapid or "pressured" speech, the tendency to switch from topic to topic, and an inability to listen to the comments of others are often observed in patients with bipolar disorder. These symptoms are often referred to as
-flight of ideas.
flight of ideas.
Vulnerability to depression has been noted among
Factors that are thought to contribute to depression in women include all of the following except
-hormonal changes during adolescence.
-the menstrual cycle.
Pearl constantly blames herself for problems in her marriage. She believes she has a personality flaw and no matter what she will always have problems in relationships. Pearl will likely exhibit
Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.
Suicide is often associated with which of the following?
-loss of contact with reality.
-none of the above.
none of the above.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with
-memory, attention, thinking, and communication.
-rigid and over controlled thinking.
-an inability to be alone.
-feeling frustrated because victims feel they are so different from other people.
memory, attention, thinking, and communication.
Your patient confides that the FBI and the CIA are "out to get me." Your patient has __________ delusions.
While standing on a bus, a man overhears a discussion about a person who is about to be terminated from his job. The man decides that the people on the bus are talking about him and that he has been targeted for termination. The man demonstrates
-delusions of grandeur.
-delusions of reference.
delusions of reference.
The behavior of some people with schizophrenia is extremely agitated. In other cases, one might observe the patient to be slow and without emotional expression, that is, the patient is
-in a stupor.
in a stupor.
Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with
Georgina's speech is very confusing and rarely makes sense. She makes funny faces and is often heard giggling. Georgina exhibits __________ schizophrenia.
Waxy flexibility is a feature of __________ schizophrenia.
Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.
Psychodynamic theory suggests that schizophrenia is the result of
-regression caused by inner conflict.
-an unresolved Oedipal conflict.
regression caused by inner conflict.
Evaluation of the role of factors such as poverty, crowding, and discrimination in the onset of schizophrenia is pursued by researchers with a(n) __________ view of
Anna's doctor is looking at the activity in her prefrontal cortex and the size of her ventricles to determine possible causes of her schizophrenia. Anna's doctor endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.
It appears that many people with schizophrenia have undergone a variety of birth and pregnancy complications. These findings suggest that atypical __________ may be
-central nervous system development
central nervous system development
According to the dopamine theory of schizophrenia, all of the following are true except that there is
-an overproduction of dopamine.
-an overuse of dopamine.
-increased amounts of dopamine at the synapses.
-a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia.
an overproduction of dopamine.
An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is
-only biologically based disorders.
-patients using consistent methods no matter how the therapist was trained.
-psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth issues.
-only those clinical syndromes described in the DSM-IV.
psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth issues.
When society explained mental illness as demonic possession or evil, the treatments for psychological disorders were
Carrie wants to increase her self-esteem and become the best spouse she can be. Which approach is likely to help Carrie be successful?
-visiting a psychic
-none of the above
The function of early asylums was to
-provide a place to store the mentally ill.
-treat individuals with psychological disorders.
-spiritually cleanse those with abnormal behavior.
-house new slaves.
provide a place to store the mentally ill.
A client reclines as they talk about whatever comes to mind. The therapist listens and notices relationships or time periods that the client avoids talking about. This is the __________ therapeutic method.
You are a modern psychodynamic therapist. You will be more directive than a traditional psychoanalyst, and you will focus on the __________ more than the id.
Modern psychoanalysis is to __________ as Freudian psychoanalysis is to __________.
While psychodynamic approaches focus on the unconscious level of experience, the humanistic-existential perspective focuses on the __________ level of experience.
__________ originated client-centered therapy.
Both client-centered and Gestalt therapy aim to help clients
-integrate conflicting parts of their personalities.
-gain access to repressed material in the unconscious.
integrate conflicting parts of their personalities.
Psychodynamic, client-centered, and Gestalt therapies all view psychological disorders as the result of
A recent divorcee is struggling in the area of communication skills. The __________ therapist sets up a program to reinforce the client's acquisition of social skills.
Behavior therapists argue that the effectiveness of therapy depends upon specific
Behavior therapists help clients to become aware of the __________ in which maladaptive behavior occurs.
One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is
Your client suffers with claustrophobia and can't get on the elevator at their place of employment. The therapist helps them construct an approach hierarchy to work toward riding the elevator. The client is trained in relaxation before the approach hierarchy is used. This method is indicative of
Dr. Fry conducts research on the attitudes of youth and dating in schools. He is a psychologist in the area of __________.
-school social director
-none of the above
Social psychology involves the study of all of the following except
Your friend was recently killed by a drunk driver. Students from an organization against drunk drivers ask you to sign their petition and donate to their cause. You are more than happy to comply because of your friend's recent demise. This demonstrates how the __________ of your attitude influences your behavior.
Which factor influences the probability that we can predict people's behavior from attitudes?
-strength of attitude
-a and b only
-strength of attitude
In __________ terms, prejudice is connected with social and economic difficulties.
-none of the above
In __________ terms, prejudice is connected with attitudinal differences.
-all of the above
__________ ran a series of experiments to find out how many people would resist immoral requests made by authority figures.
Ihor has been in the army for almost two years. He has gone through boot camp, learned drill, and now is able to do much automatically and without hesitation when commanded to do so. He is likely to risk his life when ordered to. This process is a good example of __________ applied to obedience.
-the foot-in-the-door technique
-the accessibility of values
the foot-in-the-door technique
Vasily participated in a replication of Milgram's original obedience experiment. Like the other "teachers" in the Milgram experiments, as Vasily became more emotionally aroused, his emotions probably interfered with clear thinking. When this happened, the __________ factor tended to increase the likelihood of obedience.
-perception of legitimate authority
-lack of social comparison
-inaccessibility of values
inaccessibility of values
Social norms are
-the tendency to return feelings and attitudes that are expressed about us by others.
-the explicit and implicit expectations concerning social behavior.
-clearly stated forms of peer pressure.
-all of the above.
the explicit and implicit expectations concerning social behavior.
In the Solomon Asch study, the only real subject was always given the __________ seat (out of eight).
A member of a jury disagrees with the other members. A key factor in encouraging this individual to "stick to his guns" in the face of majority opinion is
-finding just one other person who supports his minority opinion.
-finding a group whose size is greater than 18 members.
-the desire to be liked by other members of the group.
-none of the above.
finding just one other person who supports his minority opinion.