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According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with

the Oedipus complex

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of


The MMPI was originally developed to identify

emotional disorders

The social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of personal traits and environment, a process that Albert Bandura called

reciprocal determinism

The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of

The trait perspective

Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?


Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates


Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates

a weak superego.

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates

learned helplessness.

Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of

Unconscious wishes.

We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of

situational influences

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for


Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate

self-serving bias

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called

The Big Five

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