Terms in this set (14)
1632-1704 17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
(1712-1778) Swiss-French political philosopher; he valued the social contract and addressed the nature of man in his work On the Origin of Inequality.
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
Two Philosophers who influenced our government the most.
John Locke influenced Thomas Jefferson's unalienable rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).
Montesquieu influenced James Madison to write Separation of Powers and Checks & Balances into the U.S. Constitution.
Separation of Powers
Separating the government into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Checks & Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Carries out the laws.
Branch of Gov't charged with creation of new laws.
Branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly.