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Active acquired immunity is gained:

After birth

If a person has innate resistance to a disease, the person has _____ immunity.


A 20-year-old male received a knife wound to the arm during an altercation. Which of the following types of immunity was compromised?

Natural Immunity

Which of the following is an example of biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms?


A 25-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of vaginal discharge of a white, viscous, and foul-smelling substance. She reports that she has been taking antibiotics for the past 6 months. Which of the following is the most likely reason for her discharge?

Decreased Lactobacillus

What is a purpose of the inflammatory process?

To prevent infection of the injured tissue

A child fell off the swing and scraped her knee. The injured area becomes red and painful. Which of the following would also occur?

Edema at injured site

The mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of:


A 13-year-old female fell on her knee while skating. The area became inflamed and sore to touch. Which of the following would result from activation of the plasma system secondary to her injury?

Cellular infiltration

The directional movement of cells along a chemical gradient is termed:


A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?


The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:


A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes aspirin for relief. Which of the following effects will relieve the headache?

Decrease prostaglandin production

Leukotrienes differ from histamine in which of the following ways?

Time of release

A 25-year-old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. The pain associated with the injury is related to:

kinins and prostaglandins

The complement system, clotting system, and kinin system share which of the following characteristics?

Activation of a series of proenzymes

The classic pathway of the complement system is activated by:

antigen-antibody complexes

The primary actions of the complement cascade include:

increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, chemotaxis, opsonization, and cell killing

Bradykinin is involved in:

increasing vascular permeability

The end product of the clotting system is:


A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with a bacterial infection. Cultures of the bacteria revealed lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial cell surface. Which of the complement pathways would be activated in this case?

Alternate Pathway

A 2-year-old female presents with difficulty breathing and an edematous appearance. Her mother reports that the condition is recurrent and seems to occur more often during stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with angioneurotic edema. Which of the following is deficient in this child?

C1 esterase inhibitor

Opsonins are molecules that:

enhance phagocytosis

A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with a large tapeworm. Which of the following cells would be produced in response to this worm?


A 65-year-old female is diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Which of the following cells would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the tumor cells?

Natural killer cells

The phagocyte's role begins when the inflammatory response causes it to stick avidly to capillary walls in a process called:


An infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever?


A 54-year-old male IV drug user is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Testing revealed that he is a candidate for treatment. Which of the following could be used to treat his condition?


A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with lobar pneumonia (lung infection). Which of the following exudates would be present in highest concentration at the site of this advanced inflammatory response?


During inflammation, the liver is stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as:

acute phase reactants

A 30-year-old female develops chronic inflammation after accidentally ingesting cat feces that were contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most likely also be present?

Granuloma formation

The cleanup of a lesion involving the dissolution of fibrin clots by fibrinolytic enzymes is a process called:


A 12-year-old male is fighting with another child when he receives a puncture wound from a pencil. The school nurse cleans and bandages the wound. After about 1 week, the wound would be in which phase of healing?


The macrophage secretion that stimulates procollagen synthesis and secretion is:

transforming growth factor-beta

A patient with scurvy generally expresses impaired wound healing caused by a lack of:

ascorbic acid

A 30-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident. The glass from the shattered window cut his face and neck. The scar, however, was raised and extended beyond the original boundaries of the wound. This pattern of scarring is caused by:

impaired collagen synthesis

Which of the following cells is responsible for presenting the antigen to the immune cells during clonal selection?

Antigen-processing cells

Both B and T cells are originally derived from cells of the:

Bone marrow

A 3-year-old male is diagnosed with autoimmune-induced type 1 diabetes. Which of the following therapies may help prevent worsening of the disease?

Oral administration of self-antigens

A 6-year-old female is diagnosed with a bacterial infection of the respiratory system. Which of the following will most likely try to fight the antigen?


The immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta confers _____ immunity to the fetus.

passive acquired

A 16-year-old male is bitten by a rabid dog while jogging in the park. Upon admission to the ER, he is given _____ to prevent infection.


A molecule is isolated from the human body and studied. It is found to react with antibodies on B cells. Further testing reveals that the molecule is large and chemically diverse. Which of the following would best describe the molecule?


Which of the following characteristics increases an antigen's ability to be immunogenic?

Combining with carrier molecules

If a person is given antigen X and is later given antigen Y, a(n)_____ response to antigen Y will result.


The most abundant class of antibody in the serum is:


The predominant antibody of a typical primary immune response is:


The primary role of secretory IgA is to prevent infections in:

Mucous Membranes

A 23-year-old pregnant female visits her physician for her final prenatal checkup. The physician determines that the fetus has developed an infection in utero. Which of the following would be increased in the fetus at birth?


Which portion of the antibody is responsible for activating the inflammatory systems?

Fc portion

An experiment is carried out to characterize newly discovered immunoglobulins. Specificity of the immunoglobulin could be determined by studying the:

Complementary-determining region

A 20-year-old female is applying for nursing school and is required to be tested for immunity against several illnesses. Testing that looks at which of the following would be the best to determine immunity?


A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. This reaction is the result of:


A 25-year-old female has sexual relations with her boyfriend. Later she is told that the boyfriend is infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Testing reveals that she does not have the disease. How is it possible that she did not contract the disease?

Antibodies covered sites of attachment

Which of the following characteristics is shared by both the secretory and systemic immune systems?

Neutralization following antigen-antibody binding

At a 12-month well-baby visit, the mother reports that the child has never been ill. She proudly reports that the baby was breastfed since birth. The nurse tells her that breastfeeding is beneficial because the dominant antibody in breast milk acts by functioning as an antigen receptor:

in mucosal membranes

Pure monoclonal antibodies are produced by:


An experiment is designed to determine specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immune response. The experimenter is interested in finding cells that attack cells that have specific antigens. Which cells should be isolated?

Cytotoxic T cells

Histocompatibility antigens help the immune system:

distinguish self from nonself

A 20-year-old female has been diagnosed with AIDS. Laboratory testing would reveal diminished levels of:

helper T cells

Which of the following is not a secondary lymph organ?


After exposure to a specific antigen, B cells differentiate into:

plasma cells

A macrophage was isolated and analyzed for major histocompatibility complex. Which of the following would be expected?

MHC I and II

A cell that is produced in the thymus and interacts with MHC II molecules would have which of the following surface proteins?


A patient is diagnosed with cancer. Which of the following cells would be produced in the greatest number?


A young male patient becomes severely ill following lunch at the local hamburger stand. He experiences fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Testing at the restaurant reveals that he ate food contaminated by Streptococcus pyogenes. Which of the following would be expected to accompany his illness?

Binding without antigen recognition

A 6-month-old infant is brought to the pediatrician for recurrent colds. The child is fed formula, and the other family members have not been ill. The physician tells the mother that the child's immune system is not yet competent but will be about 60% of an adult system around age:

12 Months

Increased age is associated with:

increased hypersensitivity responses

A 5-month-old child is admitted to the hospital with recurring respiratory infections. A possible cause of this condition is:

immune insufficiency

Hypersensitivity is best defined as:

an excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen

A 5-year-old female takes a hike through the woods during a school field trip. Upon returning home, she hugs her father and he later develops poison ivy. Which of the following immune reactions is he experiencing?


When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?


Seasonal allergic rhinitis is expressed through:

IgE-mediated reactions

A patient presents with poison ivy on extremities, face, and buttocks. This disease is an example of:

delayed hypersensitivity

A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:


The most severe consequence of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:


A 25-year-old female is suffering from hay fever. Which of the following would be an expected symptom?


Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions does not involve an antibody response?

Type IV

A 10-year-old male presents to his physician complaining of wheezing and difficulty breathing. History reveals that both of the child's parents suffer from allergies. Which of the following terms would be used to classify the child?


A 30-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of fatigue, excessive sweating, and increased appetite. Physical examination reveals protruding eyes, and laboratory testing reveals hyperthyroidism secondary to autoantibody production. This disorder falls into which of the following categories?

Type II hypersensitivity

A 30-year-old male is having difficulty breathing and has been spitting blood. He reports that he began experiencing this reaction after cleaning his pigeons' cages. Testing reveals he is suffering from allergic alveolitis. Which of the following is he experiencing?

Arthus reaction

An example of an immune-complex-mediated disease is:

serum sickness

Several prisoners are experiencing symptoms of tuberculosis. A tuberculin reaction test was ordered. This test is an example of type _____ hypersensitivity.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an example of:


A 30-year-old female complains of fatigue, arthritis, rash, and changes in urine color. Laboratory testing reveals anemia, lymphopenia, and kidney inflammation. Assuming a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which of the following is also likely to be present?

Antinuclear antibodies

A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Which of the following symptoms would be considered a symptom of this disease?


What is the chance that two siblings share both HLA haplotypes, making them a good match for an organ transplant from one to the other?


If a person has type O blood, she is likely to have high titers (levels) of anti-_____ antibodies.

A and B

In addition to matching ABO antigens, a blood transfusion must also be matched for:

Rh antigen

A 15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type-transfusion type matches would cause this?


Which relationship benefits the organism but causes no harm to the host?


The microorganisms that make up the normal human flora are important for:

preventing the attachment and multiplication of pathogens

Bacterial pathogens can defend themselves from an immune response by:

producing capsules

When a person is given an attenuated antigen as a vaccine, the antigen is:

alive, but less infectious

Endotoxins are produced by:

gram-negative bacteria

A 5-year-old male becomes ill with a severe cough. Histologic examination reveals a bacterial infection and further laboratory testing reveals cell membrane damage and decreased protein synthesis. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this illness?


A 50-year-old female experiences decreased blood pressure, decreased oxygen delivery, cardiovascular shock, and subsequent death. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

Gram-negative bacteria


replicate their genetic material inside host cells

Varicella, the virus that causes chicken pox, replicates:

in the cytoplasm

A 25-year-old female reports having unprotected sexual intercourse with several men. Blood tests reveal that she is positive for human papilloma virus. Which of the following may occur because of the infection?


Fungi causing deep or systemic infections:

are commonly opportunistic

The hallmark symptom of most infectious diseases is:


Most viral vaccines contain:

attenuated viruses

Most bacterial vaccines contain:

dead bacteria

Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobials by:


A common symptom of individuals with immunodeficiency is:

recurrent infections

A 5-year-old male presents with low-set ears, a fish-shaped mouth, and involuntary rapid muscular contraction. Laboratory testing reveals decreased calcium levels. Which of the following diagnosis is most likely?

T lymphocyte deficiency

A 22-year-old prostitute was recently diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A decrease in which of the following cell types would be expected to accompany this virus?

CD4 T-helper

Which of the following is a characteristic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?

HIV is a retrovirus

A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

Which of the following is true regarding stress?

It can be viewed as transactional

Selye reported several structural changes in rats exposed to repeated stressors. These included:

ulceration in the gastrointestinal system

A student is driving to school when another driver nearly hits her. Her heart begins beating harder and faster as she becomes aroused and scared. Which of the following stages of the general adaptation syndrome is she experiencing?

Alarm stage

Exhaustion occurs if stress continues and _____ is not successful


A student arrives at school to find that he has an exam for which he is unprepared. Which of the following would be expected?

Increased glucagon release

A 10-year-old female is arriving at a national spelling bee contest. Her heart starts beating faster and harder and she begins to sweat. Which of the following is she experiencing?

Anticipatory response

Which of the following hormones activates both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors?


A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with a hormone-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla. He experiences elevated blood pressure, pupil dilation, "goose bumps," and excessive sweating of the armpits and hands. Which of the following hormones is the predominant one released by the tumor?


Stress induces sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal medulla. This causes the secretion of catecholamines, which include:

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Stress-induced stimulation of the adrenal cortex causes it to secrete:


Stress-induced catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla may result in:

elevated blood pressure

A 50-year-old female is diagnosed with a hormone-secreting tumor of the adrenal cortex. Which of the following would be expected?

Increased lipogenesis of face and trunk

A 30-year-old male develops poison ivy after mowing the lawn near the woods. His physician prescribes a synthetic cortisol. How will the cortisol relieve his symptoms?

Suppressing Th1 cell activity

Effects of elevated -endorphins include:

pain inhibition

A 10-year-old male was physically abused for the previous 4 years. He reports feeling stressed all the time and frequently gets ill. Which of the following hormones is most likely suppressed in this child?

Growth hormone

Coping is best defined as the process of:

managing stressful challenges

The stress-age syndrome includes which of the following?


A patient has a tissue growth that was diagnosed as cancer. Which of the following growth types could it be?


Which feature is characteristic of malignant tumor?

Has a high mitotic index

The process by which a cell acquires specific new observable characteristics is:


Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin are referred to as:

cancer in situ

A 25-year-old male develops a tumor of the breast glandular tissue. This type of tumor is classified as a(n):


A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. This cancer would be stage:


When a cancer cell loses differentiation, _____ has occurred


A physician is attempting to diagnose cancer and is looking for a tumor marker. Which of the following could be a possible marker?


A 52-year-old male with hepatitis C recently developed hepatic cancer. Which of the following markers should be increased?


The best explanation for higher rates of cancer in older populations is:

the development of cancer requires several mutations over time

In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate:

new blood vessel growth

Presence of telomere caps gives cancer cells:


A proto-oncogene is best defined as:

a normal gene

Of the following genetic lesions that cause cancer, which is the most common?

Point mutations

A child develops retinoblastoma. Which of the following must have occurred?

Mutations in the rb gene occurred in both copies of the gene

A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer. One potential reason for development of this condition is:

mutation of caretaker genes

A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?

Human papilloma virus

A 30-year-old American male with HIV is diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus. After 2 months, the virus is still active. What is the concern for this patient?

Development of B cell lymphoma

A 45-year-old male presents with persistent, severe stomach pain. Testing reveals a peptic ulcer. Further laboratory tests reveal the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Which of the following is of concern for this patient?

Gastric cancer

A 40-year-old female was diagnosed with colorectal cancer, for which she refused treatment. Four years later she returned to her physician. Testing revealed that the cancer had metastasized to the:


Which of the following factors is necessary for local tumor spread?

Increased cellular motility

The most common route of metastasis is through the:


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