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Chapter 8 bio
Terms in this set (49)
Both asexual and sexual reproduction rely on _____.
The "beads on a string" level of DNA packing refers to _____
A human bone marrow cell, in prophase of mitosis, contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromatids does it contain altogether?
It is difficult to observe individual chromosomes with a light microscope during interphase because __________.
they have uncoiled to form long, thin strands
A cell entering the cell cycle with 32 chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each with __________.
Chromatids are __________.
identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome
DNA replication occurs during which phase of the cell cycle?
the S phase of interphase
Chromatids form during which phase of the cell cycle?
In some organisms, such as certain fungi and algae, cells undergo mitosis repeatedly without subsequently undergoing cytokinesis. What would be the result of this?
large cells containing many nuclei
The function of the cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that __________.
are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)
Cytokinesis refers to __________.
division of the cell other than the nuclear material
In the telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in _____.
At which point in the cell cycle do centrosomes begin to separate and move to the two poles of the cell?
The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes move toward separate poles of the cell is _____.
One event occurring during prophase is __________.
the beginning of the formation of the mitotic spindle
Which one of the following occurs during mitosis?
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes prepared for separation to opposite poles of the cell?
You would recognize a dividing cell as a plant cell and not an animal cell if you saw that it had __________.
form a cell plate
Cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. This chemical would interfere with __________.
In animal cell mitosis, the cleavage furrow forms during _____.
What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor?
Benign tumors do not metastasize; malignant tumors do.
iploid organisms have a pair of sex chromosomes. All of the other chromosomes are called _____.
A karyotype is __________.
a photograph of a person's chromosomes
Two chromosomes in a nucleus that carry genes for the same traits, but specify different versions of the same traits, are called _____.
How many pairs of autosomes do humans have?
When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that __________.
its cells each have one set of chromosomes
The diploid phase of the human life cycle begins with __________.
What is the normal result of a diploid cell undergoing meiosis?
4 haploid cells
In a cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes.
At the end of telophase I of meiosis and cytokinesis, there are __________.
2 haploid cells
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair during _____.
During anaphase II __________.
sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles
During anaphase I __________.
homologues separate and migrate toward opposite poles
Crossing over occurs during _____.
An organism has a haploid chromosome number n = 4. How many tetrads will form during meiosis?
Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division?
Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs.
Which one of the following is a function of mitosis in humans?
multiplication of body cells
What is the function of meiosis?
to make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes
Mitosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of __________; meiosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of __________.
two diploid cells ... four haploid cells
Mitosis and meiosis differ in several ways. Mitosis, but not meiosis, __________.
results in two genetically identical daughter cells
Mitosis is less complicated than meiosis because it carries out less complicated functions. Mitosis must __________.
undergo a single round of cytokinesis
Which one of the following occurs in meiosis, but not in mitosis?
pairing of homologous chromosomes
Variation between mitosis and meiosis occurs when chromosomes are shuffled in _____.
If the diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 6 (2n = 6), there are three sets of two homologous chromosomes each, or three pairs. How do these three pairs align and separate in meiosis?
They align and assort independently to form any of eight different combinations.
Sites where crossing over has occurred are called _____.
Prior to some recent studies, such as with bdelloid rotifers, scientists thought that organisms that reproduced solely by asexual reproduction were __________.
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes sometimes "stick together" and do not separate properly. This phenomenon is known as _____.
Each cell in an individual with Down syndrome contains _____ chromosomes.
The major contribution of sex to evolution has been __________.
to provide a method that creates greater genetic variation
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
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