ms.smiths MA test

agricultural revolution
mid 11th c- large areas are cleared and drained gives more $$ to lords
horses v. oxen
oxen have greater stamina
put on horses so thier feet dont get hurt on rough terrain
collar harness
better control of animals
decline in serfdom
better farming= less starvation= higher popular= people can take other jobs
change one type of coin for another
build/expand business by having investors put in $$ and take part of profit
letter of credit
put $$ in strongboxes get a letter of credit saying you have $$ so you can buy things
place where you keep your money; like a bank
you need insurance in case your bakery burns down so then you wont lose all your life and $$
organizations of master craftspersons who practiced the same trade (ex bakers, smiths)
the thing you go in for punishment if you didnt listen to the guilds rules
trainee to master craftperson for 2-7 yrs with no pay but you do get room and board
is a day laborer and he worked on his masterpiece
big final project
pay the lord for it which allows self rule
town organization
most have a small population the shops at street level with merchants living above its filled with people all day every day some times people were executed streets werent lit so its unsafe at night
largest European towns
Florence, Paris, Ghent, Bruges with 50-100 K and they are crowded and filthy
freedom for serfs
occansionally fled from manors and escaped to the city to become free after 1 yr and 1 day in city
rise of middle class
because not many people needed to farm, they could have specialized jobs like merchants bankers stonemason and could make $$$$$
starts to develop as a state in the late MA it grows to develop strong govts which means king can tax people and hire soldiers for his army
also starts to develop as a state and it grows too and king makes $$ from taxes and hires soldier
all germanic tribes
this becomes england
alfred of wessex
is from england (wessex is west saxon) he resistes danes in 866 and brings peace and wrote the anglo-saxon chronicle
anglo-saxon chronicle
a book about the events in england
normans (viking "northmen") invade from france
viking northmen
battle of hastings
william the duke of normandy defeats the anglo-saxon king harold and becomes the king of england
william of normany
he is the duke who becomes the king of england in 1066
domesday book
the 1st census to collect taxes
harold godwinson
king of anglo-saxon who is defeated by william at battle of hastings
bayeux tapsestry
the famous tapsestry that shows the battle of hastings when william throws the bow into harolds eye kiling him and winning to become king of england
henry 1
son of william and he est the common law system
common law
cases went to the royal courts instead of the church courts makes fairer justice system
decisions of punishments are written down to use for future crimes
trial jury
settles disputes in court more than one person
grand jury
originally tells who has committed the crime
richard the lionhearted
bad king he had high taxes
king john(lackland/softsword)
bad king too had high taxes and unhappy barons and the lords made him sign the MAGNA CARTA in 1215
magna carta is signed it says taxations with representation is needed, everyone has the right to a trial by jury of peers and powers of royals and monarchs must be limited
taxation with reprsentation
monarchs had to have peoples approval to raise taxes
english claim on french lands
descendants of william of normandy said they owned land in france because of the english king
henry 2
english increased thier holdings of french land when he married eleanor of aquitaine
philip 2
1202 had a war with england and took most of the french land that was owned by england
the advisory council of france made of lords
both stayed seperate with many small kingdoms; not united
otto the great
he expanded royal power and made friends with the church in germany against the dukes
holy roman empire
962 the pope crowns otto the king of the hre and it tries to control italy but never had influence over german dukes(why that is related i dont know)
church reform
the church got really super powerful and controlled almost everyone
italian families
they saw the papacy(office of the pope) as a political prize they wanted it so they would do anything for it such as murder and cheating
college of cardinals
at the middle of the 11th century this was created to appoint the pope and try to eliminate corruption
gregory 7
in 1073 he became pope and insisted the pope only had the power to appoint bishops he got in a big fight with the holy roman emperor henry 4
henry 4
got in a big fight with gergory 7(pope) he was the holy roman emperor
well greg said he was going to excommunicate(kick out) henry if he didnt listen to the church so henry said that greg was a fake monk so henry got kicked out and the germans didnt know who to help so civil war comes then they invited greg to germany to crown a new hre and so henry got scared and went to canossa(italy city) and begged for 3 days in the snow to be let in and eventually he was
henry 5
in 1122 the church and new holy roman emperor henry 5 met in worms and signed the concordat of worms
concordat of worms
officially gives the power to appoint bishops to the church/pope and makes church supreme power
innocent 3
the pope that called for 4th crusade in 1202 so 10,000 crusaders left venice with merchants and they stopped in constantinople and kind of lost interest so just robbed the city
holding beliefs the church say are wrong
they said anything physical(anything with flesh like a human or dog) is evil so jesus couldnt have been a real man and innocent 3 wiped out a million albigensians in 20 yrs(albigensian crusade)
church court set up to identify and prosecute heretics(people who believe in heresy)
st dominic
he established the dominicans which are famous for teaching religion in universities
st francis of assisi
he established the franciscans
people who worked for the church that werent members of the clergy
monks who dont live in monasteries and just wander around and preach
the 500 yr struggle to recapture spain from the muslims
urban 2
in 1095 he was the pope and appealed to knights and lords in europe to retake the holy land from the muslims he wanted the christians to have jerusalem
the lords wanted glory and adventure and wealth so they signed onto the idea of crusades they are a religious war
crusades comes from the latin word whih means to cross
peasants crusades
peter the hermit and walter the penniless called for a march so thousands of poor people left their homes, well they didnt know how far away jerusalem was so they just started killing jews
childrens crusades
some kid led like 20,000 kids on a crusade and thats all i really know
1st crusade
began in 1096 when they headed for constantinople the crusaders captured anitoch and jerusalem
where the crusaders headed during the 1st crusade
louis 7
the 2nd crusade was led by this king in 1144 and conrad 3 they were slaughtered by the muslims and barely any made it to the holy land
hre conrad 3
helped in the 2nd crusade but got slaughtered
3rd crusade
richard 1 of england philip augustus of france and frederick 1 the hre raised armies in 1187 but couldnt deicide who was to lead so they couldnt beat saladin(he fought the crusaders and retook important land)
richard 1
raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader
philip augustus
raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader
hre frederick 1
raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader
4th crusade
in 1202 innocent 3 called in 10,000 crusaders from venic they stopped in constantinople got bored so robbed the city instead
results of the crusades
they were a fail so the power of the papcy(office of the pope) declined and the nobles lost $$$ and power because they put all of that toward the crusades but they brought back exotic products that the europeans liked so trade increased
german expansion east
in the 1100s and 1200s germany expanded thier land east of the baltic sea because the lords wanted to carve out new estates, missionaries wanted to convert people to christianity, and merchants wanted new places to trade
hanseatic league
the germans established a new trading leauge which closed trade with the new colonies to other european countries
in the 1100s and 1200s learning picked up again
revival of learning
it was mainly due to the fact that so many towns had grown because of the agricultural revolution
1st universities
bologna 1088, paris,oxford,and salerno by 1200
university life
they got up at 5 had church until 6 then had class until 10 had a soup lunch then had class until 6 the had to sit on hard benches straw on the floor it was cold the only book belonged to the professor so they had to take notes on slates(which is like a chalkboard)
they said reason can be used to explain the teachings of the bible
st thomas aquinas
he was the most brillant scholar
summa theologica
written by st thomas aquinas
roger bacon
he said light travels faster than sound
predicting events on earth by looking at the stars(this is true ms smith!)
search for margic formulas to turn lead into gold which becomes chemistry
local langauge(example-midlos vernacular is english because the majority of us speak english)
morality/mystery/miracle play
some famous medieval dramas
written in the early 700s its anglo-saxon and says that beowulf kills grendel and becomes king
song of roland
its french and its heroes in charlemanges court
el cid
from spain
king arthur
from england
from germany
noblemen who are poets/muscians in castles of europe who sing songs of life/love to all the beautiful ladies
dante alighieri
he is the greatest poet of the middle ages he wronte divine comdey
divine comdey
story of livys journey through heaven hell and purgatory
geroffrey chaucer
wrote canterbury tales
canterbury tales
pilgrims on way to canterbury cathedral
rounded arches, thick walls, small windows, dark
pointed arch, flying buttresses, high ceilings, lots of light/stained glass windows
gothic arch
a pointed arch
flying buttress
supports thick heavy walls of cathedrals
stained glass
colored stone that lets in light
what they had church in and they took 50-300 years to build
bubonic plauge
killed 1/3-1/2 of the population came in several rounds
black death
1st it comes in asia in 1331 then in russia in 1848 and it goes to europe through italy merchants
i guess thats when you whip yourself well thats what i got from ms smith
peasant revellion
less food supply with higher taxes from the nobles so they rebell
wat tyler
he rebelled in 1381 but was squashed by the kings soldiers
john ball
he also rebelled in 1381 with wat
hundred years war
1337-1453 it was france vs england english domianted france with the longbow and england was winning but then joan of arc came in and france won
long bow
it shot farther and faster than cross bow
king edward 3
claimed the french throne
joan of arc
she believed god told her to take control of the french army and regain thier land so she did as a teenage girl and drove england out of france but was captured and burned at the steak as a witch but the church said she died a saint
french victory in 1429 thanks to joan of arc
louis 11
increased the power of the throne with bribery, diplomacy, and force
absolute monarchy
this was in france because of louis 11
war of the roses
this was the struggle for the english throne because of the split in the royal family in 1455 the house of lancaster was represented by the red rose and the house of york was represented by the white rose and in the end the house of tudor was established
house of lancaster
red rose they win
house of york
white rose they lose
babylonian captivity
1309-1377 all the popes are french and they rule from avigon
great schism
division of the church which lasted 40 years
urban 6
he was elected by the french cardinals but he didnt so what they wanted
john wycliffe
he was a 1300s oxford scholar and said the christians should read the bible not listen to the church and so he translated the bible into english
john huss
he was czechoslovakian and he criticized the pope so he was excommunicated and burned at the stake for heresy in 1415