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agricultural revolution

mid 11th c- large areas are cleared and drained gives more $$ to lords

horses v. oxen

oxen have greater stamina


put on horses so thier feet dont get hurt on rough terrain

collar harness

better control of animals

decline in serfdom

better farming= less starvation= higher popular= people can take other jobs


change one type of coin for another


build/expand business by having investors put in $$ and take part of profit

letter of credit

put $$ in strongboxes get a letter of credit saying you have $$ so you can buy things


place where you keep your money; like a bank


you need insurance in case your bakery burns down so then you wont lose all your life and $$


organizations of master craftspersons who practiced the same trade (ex bakers, smiths)


the thing you go in for punishment if you didnt listen to the guilds rules


trainee to master craftperson for 2-7 yrs with no pay but you do get room and board


is a day laborer and he worked on his masterpiece


big final project


pay the lord for it which allows self rule

town organization

most have a small population the shops at street level with merchants living above its filled with people all day every day some times people were executed streets werent lit so its unsafe at night

largest European towns

Florence, Paris, Ghent, Bruges with 50-100 K and they are crowded and filthy

freedom for serfs

occansionally fled from manors and escaped to the city to become free after 1 yr and 1 day in city

rise of middle class

because not many people needed to farm, they could have specialized jobs like merchants bankers stonemason and could make $$$$$


starts to develop as a state in the late MA it grows to develop strong govts which means king can tax people and hire soldiers for his army


also starts to develop as a state and it grows too and king makes $$ from taxes and hires soldier


all germanic tribes


this becomes england

alfred of wessex

is from england (wessex is west saxon) he resistes danes in 866 and brings peace and wrote the anglo-saxon chronicle

anglo-saxon chronicle

a book about the events in england


normans (viking "northmen") invade from france


viking northmen

battle of hastings

william the duke of normandy defeats the anglo-saxon king harold and becomes the king of england

william of normany

he is the duke who becomes the king of england in 1066

domesday book

the 1st census to collect taxes

harold godwinson

king of anglo-saxon who is defeated by william at battle of hastings

bayeux tapsestry

the famous tapsestry that shows the battle of hastings when william throws the bow into harolds eye kiling him and winning to become king of england

henry 1

son of william and he est the common law system

common law

cases went to the royal courts instead of the church courts makes fairer justice system


decisions of punishments are written down to use for future crimes

trial jury

settles disputes in court more than one person

grand jury

originally tells who has committed the crime

richard the lionhearted

bad king he had high taxes

king john(lackland/softsword)

bad king too had high taxes and unhappy barons and the lords made him sign the MAGNA CARTA in 1215


magna carta is signed it says taxations with representation is needed, everyone has the right to a trial by jury of peers and powers of royals and monarchs must be limited

taxation with reprsentation

monarchs had to have peoples approval to raise taxes

english claim on french lands

descendants of william of normandy said they owned land in france because of the english king

henry 2

english increased thier holdings of french land when he married eleanor of aquitaine

philip 2

1202 had a war with england and took most of the french land that was owned by england


the advisory council of france made of lords


both stayed seperate with many small kingdoms; not united

otto the great

he expanded royal power and made friends with the church in germany against the dukes

holy roman empire

962 the pope crowns otto the king of the hre and it tries to control italy but never had influence over german dukes(why that is related i dont know)

church reform

the church got really super powerful and controlled almost everyone

italian families

they saw the papacy(office of the pope) as a political prize they wanted it so they would do anything for it such as murder and cheating

college of cardinals

at the middle of the 11th century this was created to appoint the pope and try to eliminate corruption

gregory 7

in 1073 he became pope and insisted the pope only had the power to appoint bishops he got in a big fight with the holy roman emperor henry 4

henry 4

got in a big fight with gergory 7(pope) he was the holy roman emperor


well greg said he was going to excommunicate(kick out) henry if he didnt listen to the church so henry said that greg was a fake monk so henry got kicked out and the germans didnt know who to help so civil war comes then they invited greg to germany to crown a new hre and so henry got scared and went to canossa(italy city) and begged for 3 days in the snow to be let in and eventually he was

henry 5

in 1122 the church and new holy roman emperor henry 5 met in worms and signed the concordat of worms

concordat of worms

officially gives the power to appoint bishops to the church/pope and makes church supreme power

innocent 3

the pope that called for 4th crusade in 1202 so 10,000 crusaders left venice with merchants and they stopped in constantinople and kind of lost interest so just robbed the city


holding beliefs the church say are wrong


they said anything physical(anything with flesh like a human or dog) is evil so jesus couldnt have been a real man and innocent 3 wiped out a million albigensians in 20 yrs(albigensian crusade)


church court set up to identify and prosecute heretics(people who believe in heresy)

st dominic

he established the dominicans which are famous for teaching religion in universities

st francis of assisi

he established the franciscans


people who worked for the church that werent members of the clergy


monks who dont live in monasteries and just wander around and preach


the 500 yr struggle to recapture spain from the muslims

urban 2

in 1095 he was the pope and appealed to knights and lords in europe to retake the holy land from the muslims he wanted the christians to have jerusalem


the lords wanted glory and adventure and wealth so they signed onto the idea of crusades they are a religious war


crusades comes from the latin word whih means to cross

peasants crusades

peter the hermit and walter the penniless called for a march so thousands of poor people left their homes, well they didnt know how far away jerusalem was so they just started killing jews

childrens crusades

some kid led like 20,000 kids on a crusade and thats all i really know

1st crusade

began in 1096 when they headed for constantinople the crusaders captured anitoch and jerusalem


where the crusaders headed during the 1st crusade

louis 7

the 2nd crusade was led by this king in 1144 and conrad 3 they were slaughtered by the muslims and barely any made it to the holy land

hre conrad 3

helped in the 2nd crusade but got slaughtered

3rd crusade

richard 1 of england philip augustus of france and frederick 1 the hre raised armies in 1187 but couldnt deicide who was to lead so they couldnt beat saladin(he fought the crusaders and retook important land)

richard 1

raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader

philip augustus

raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader

hre frederick 1

raised an army but couldnt decide who was the leader

4th crusade

in 1202 innocent 3 called in 10,000 crusaders from venic they stopped in constantinople got bored so robbed the city instead

results of the crusades

they were a fail so the power of the papcy(office of the pope) declined and the nobles lost $$$ and power because they put all of that toward the crusades but they brought back exotic products that the europeans liked so trade increased

german expansion east

in the 1100s and 1200s germany expanded thier land east of the baltic sea because the lords wanted to carve out new estates, missionaries wanted to convert people to christianity, and merchants wanted new places to trade

hanseatic league

the germans established a new trading leauge which closed trade with the new colonies to other european countries


in the 1100s and 1200s learning picked up again

revival of learning

it was mainly due to the fact that so many towns had grown because of the agricultural revolution

1st universities

bologna 1088, paris,oxford,and salerno by 1200

university life

they got up at 5 had church until 6 then had class until 10 had a soup lunch then had class until 6 the had to sit on hard benches straw on the floor it was cold the only book belonged to the professor so they had to take notes on slates(which is like a chalkboard)


they said reason can be used to explain the teachings of the bible

st thomas aquinas

he was the most brillant scholar

summa theologica

written by st thomas aquinas

roger bacon

he said light travels faster than sound


predicting events on earth by looking at the stars(this is true ms smith!)


search for margic formulas to turn lead into gold which becomes chemistry


local langauge(example-midlos vernacular is english because the majority of us speak english)

morality/mystery/miracle play

some famous medieval dramas


written in the early 700s its anglo-saxon and says that beowulf kills grendel and becomes king

song of roland

its french and its heroes in charlemanges court

el cid

from spain

king arthur

from england


from germany


noblemen who are poets/muscians in castles of europe who sing songs of life/love to all the beautiful ladies

dante alighieri

he is the greatest poet of the middle ages he wronte divine comdey

divine comdey

story of livys journey through heaven hell and purgatory

geroffrey chaucer

wrote canterbury tales

canterbury tales

pilgrims on way to canterbury cathedral


rounded arches, thick walls, small windows, dark


pointed arch, flying buttresses, high ceilings, lots of light/stained glass windows

gothic arch

a pointed arch

flying buttress

supports thick heavy walls of cathedrals

stained glass

colored stone that lets in light


what they had church in and they took 50-300 years to build

bubonic plauge

killed 1/3-1/2 of the population came in several rounds

black death

1st it comes in asia in 1331 then in russia in 1848 and it goes to europe through italy merchants


i guess thats when you whip yourself well thats what i got from ms smith

peasant revellion

less food supply with higher taxes from the nobles so they rebell

wat tyler

he rebelled in 1381 but was squashed by the kings soldiers

john ball

he also rebelled in 1381 with wat

hundred years war

1337-1453 it was france vs england english domianted france with the longbow and england was winning but then joan of arc came in and france won

long bow

it shot farther and faster than cross bow

king edward 3

claimed the french throne

joan of arc

she believed god told her to take control of the french army and regain thier land so she did as a teenage girl and drove england out of france but was captured and burned at the steak as a witch but the church said she died a saint


french victory in 1429 thanks to joan of arc

louis 11

increased the power of the throne with bribery, diplomacy, and force

absolute monarchy

this was in france because of louis 11

war of the roses

this was the struggle for the english throne because of the split in the royal family in 1455 the house of lancaster was represented by the red rose and the house of york was represented by the white rose and in the end the house of tudor was established

house of lancaster

red rose they win

house of york

white rose they lose

babylonian captivity

1309-1377 all the popes are french and they rule from avigon

great schism

division of the church which lasted 40 years

urban 6

he was elected by the french cardinals but he didnt so what they wanted

john wycliffe

he was a 1300s oxford scholar and said the christians should read the bible not listen to the church and so he translated the bible into english

john huss

he was czechoslovakian and he criticized the pope so he was excommunicated and burned at the stake for heresy in 1415

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