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philosophy midterm fall
Terms in this set (89)
love of wisdom, art of asking questions, includes assumptions about the answer, have to also question ourselves, must critically analyze your assumptions
3 questions philosophers ask
what is real
how do i know
what should i do (ethics)
who are the characters in the allegory of the cave? (by Plato)
Socrates & Glaucon (one of Plato's brothers)
-Socrates is telling the story of the allegory of the cave to Glaucon
story characters: prisoners- puppets and puppet masters
experience of prisoners in the cave
chained and can only see in front to see the cave wall (They see shadows of puppets) and they hear echoes of human beings making sounds of puppets or hear sounds of words
-however, they CANT see the puppet masters or puppets themselves and they CANT see the other prisoners or themselves
-only light is a fire behind them
-they have been in cave since childhood, it is all they know
radical ignorance in allegory of the cave
-it is not just that they do not know something it is that they THINK that they know but they are WRONG.
*radical ignorance is not knowing that you don't know something.
what is the problem with radical ignorance
it removes the possibility of education and learning completely
-not knowing that you do not know will hide ignorance and the refusal of one's ignorance is imprisoning and is like being a prisoner your whole life. You do not get true education and knowledge
model of ignorance
-radical ignorance of not knowing that we do not know
-true education can't happen without moving from radical ignorance to simple ignorance
escape from the cave experience
-when the prisoner leaves the cave they are blinded by the light and in pain
-it is like their chains just fall off
-acknowledging ignorance is painful and scary but overtime becomes less painful and come to realization that everything they thought was real was simply a shadow.
-might experience the temptation of sitting back down and putting chains back on because it is what's comfterable.
real education is ?
real education is liberating but does not come without pain/struggle and admitting your ignornace
what happens when prisoner returns to the cave?
- He is blinded by the darkness that was once his reality
- He attempts to explain to the other prisoners that the world they live in is not reality, however he is violently resisted by them and threatened to be killed
-no one believes him , represents the extent of resistance of education that people have
are the puppet masters free?
puppetmasters are walking around holding the puppets and they are the one's who help create what is real.
-they are figures of power and they might want to gain power for themselves over others.
-these people are not free because they still have to spend all day creating this false reality.
putting sight into a blind person =
Socrate's definition of traditional education
mind is already full but with the wrong education, must turn our assumptions about those things around and be critical of ourselves.
socrates model of education, questioning ourselves is what philosophy is
who are the characters in Antigone
uncle of Antigone who became king of Thebes after the fall of Oedipus
niece of Creon
brother of Antigone and Ismene
says the city will suffer because of Creon and someone will die because of Antigone's death sentence
-blind prophet, represents the divine
Creon's son, engaged to Antigone
Setting of Antigone
Thebes, Ancient Greece
Why is Polyneices not to have a burial?
because he started a war against his native city, he is seen as a traitor in Thebes
Who are the brothers of Antigone?
Her brothers are Polyneices and Eteocles (given a formal burial)
What punishment is decreed for the person who disobeys Creon's law?
Public stoning to death
According to Ismene, what should women not do?
Ismene thinks that women shouldn't compete with men. She feels that men and women have separate activities and responsibilities.
According to Antigone, who makes the longest demands?
the dead and gods
-antigone thinks divine law is much more important than human law . she thinks Creon's law violate's the God's divine law
Who is Antigone suppose to marry?
Creon's son (Haimon)
According to Haemon, what are the people of the city saying about Antigone?
the city weeps for her.
the city does not want to kill Antigone, they grew up with her, city rebels against Creon
does Creon have authority
-his penalty of Antigone is violent which weakens his authority over the city of Thebes. Penalty of law results in a weakness of Creon's authority
-the city is scared of Creon but not actually LOYAL to him , he does NOT have their loyalty ... this is BAD bc kingly authority is in what the people do, kingly authority resides in the people/if they obey
***However, Creon cannot admit that he is wrong
what shocks Creon that Antigone is the one who buries Polynices
-the fact that Antigone is a woman as well as his niece
-She threatens Creon's sense of order in terms of his relationship between men and women.
-she was supposed to marry his son
what does Haemon tell Creon
he is being stubborn is irrational and often harmful.
"Whoever thinks that he is the only one who can think or use his tongue or soul and these men, when you open them up, are seen to be hollow"
-Haemon says "the city does not belong to one man" but Creon thinks it belongs to him
what does Tiresias tell Creon?
his refusal to bury Polynices and his punishment of Antigone for the burial will bring the curses of the gods down on Thebes
-says the gods are displeased, but Creon does not believe Tiresias either, sees him wrong too
How does Antigone die?
secretly taken to cave
does Creon have second thoughts
difference in penalty suggests he may be but he still will not admit his wrongness until it is too late. Creon's wife kills herself when hearing the death of her son, Creon sees it at the end when IT IS TOO LATE the destruction of his law
radical ignorance in Antigone
Creon shows it by not admitting he is wrong and his law is wrong, he cannot question himself
-he NEEDS the crisis of questioning himself but does not do it
Creon's tragic flaw (chains)
pride; believing too much in the importance of man's law
-his ego, worried how others view him
Creon is similar to Antigone because
they are both very stubborn and both will not back down, not willing to consider different ways of doing things
Who raises an army and marches against Thebes?
What happens to Polynices and Eteocles?
they kill each other in battle
Why is it considered wrong to leave a bodied unburied?
burying a body is a sign of respect
How does Ismene differ from Antigone?
Ismene doesn't want to help bury Polynices, but Antigone is determined to bury his body
Who brings the news that the body has been buried?
Antigone is written by
the apology is written by
character's in Plato's The apology
Socrates (defending himself against other 3 characters, and a number of other Anthenians)
The Delphic Oracle
How did Socrates get the reputation of being wise?
A friend, Chaerephon, went to Delphi (the oracle) and asked if there was a man wiser than Socrates to which the god Apollo answered no
What was Socrates response to the oracle?
He did not believe he had any wisdom, however he beleived gods could not lie, therefore he set out to find a man more wise than he.
Socrates was very confused because he knows he is not wise.
Who were the three people Socrates interviewed and why were they perceived to be wise?
Politicians (because they could persuade so many people), Poets (create elaborate passages and poems), Artisans (workmen know how to do so many things that surely Socrates did not know how to build or make)
What does Socrates conclude after interviewing the three groups?
Socrates is wiser than any of the others because he is aware of his own ignorance and they are not.
-DIFFERENCE: Socrates knew he didn't know, but people he was talking to thought that they knew but actually didn't (RADICAL IGNORANCE)
-these people know that admitting ignorance could possibly ruin their reputation in their careers, so these people flee the conversation, these people then make false stories up about socrates and say he is a bad guy
Who are the new accusers and what are these accusations?
Meletus (Poets), Anytus (Artisans), Lycon (Politicians)That Socrates is an evil doer, corrupter of the youth, he does not believe in the gods of the state (being athiest), has new divinities of his own.
Major issues of the examined life, expertise, democracy, education, the common good, relationship between piety and philosophy
-the examined life is not worth living (philosophy is necessary to find what is valuable in life)-expertise is where you go to find the answers, not anyone can be wise on any topic-democracy is wrong because we ask non experts about how to define laws and put leaders in charge-education: Socrates believes in critical thinking, knowledge is excellence-common good: instrumental view of society, purpose of society is to help you be happy-Philosophy is a holy (pious) way of life
WHAT IS SOCRATES REALLY DEFENDING
Philosophy (public questioning of authority)
-socrates would die for philosophy, he is not so much defending his own life, he is defending the importance of philosophy
he is defending a way of living - "the unexamined life is not worth living"
3. What is the problem with the fear of death, what should one fear instead, and why?
You cannot control death and it is inevitable, so you should not have a fear of it. Fearing death is not a wise way to live. If you have a fear of death, then you are assuming that death is bad when really you do not know what happens when you die. This assumption that death is bad is the thing that gets in the way of simply living. Socrates says that only the gods know what happens after death and so it would not be smart to be afraid of what you simply do not know. One should fear living as a bad man instead. "...whether his actions are just or unjust, and the deeds of a good man or a bad" (Plato 79). You should focus on living as a good man and be afraid of being a bad person because that defines your moral character. For Socrates fearing death is a form of radical ignorance. Socrates thinks that the thing we should be afraid of is injustice.
what are the 2nd charges against Socrates
corrupting the youth, not believing in gods, creating false gods
what are the 1st charges against Socrates
-exploring things under the earth and above the heavens (this goes against the gods)
-he takes money on how to make the less wise opinion more popular, training others in rhetoric (destabilizes Athenian culture)
who is the Euthyohro written by
who are the characters in the euthyphro
(conversation between them on the porch of the king Arcon)
Meletus (The man chiefly responsible for pressing charges against Socrates, bringing him to trial, and having him executed)
Takes place outside the courthouse on the day of the trial that results in Socrates execution
Socrates runs into Euthyphro
with Euthyphro greeting Socrates and asking him what brings him to court?Socrates replies he has been charged by Meletus for corrupting the youth and refusing to acknowledge the Gods of the state
Euthyphro is in court to
charge his father with murder for killing a day laborer who killed one of his slaves
What would be considered absurd to many Athenians?
for a man to charge his own father with murderBut Euthyphro thinks he's doing right by the Gods
Socrates wants to learn from from Euthyphro what is pious and impious
Its what he is doing now prosecuting those who commit an injustice.This does not satisfy Socrates
first definition of piety
Euthyphro states that what he is doing now is pious (prosecuting the wrongdoer)
Socrates response to Euthyphro's First Definition
Socrates rejects this because it is not a definition but an example of an instance of piety. It doesn't provide one with the fundamental characteristics of what makes pious things pious
Second Defintion of piety
What is pleasing to the gods (what the gods love)
Socrates response to Euthyphro's Second Definition
Praises that this is a definition but then states that not all the gods agree on what is "pleasing" and what isn't "pleasing"
GODS ALL DO NOT LOVE THE SAME THINGS
What ALL the gods love is pious, and what they ALL hate is impious.
"what ALL the gods love"
Socrates response to Euthyphro's Third Definition
Socrates introduces the Euthryphro dilemmaIs the action pious because it is loved by the gods or is it loved by the gods because it is pious?
-if it is pious because all the gods love it: then the gods love is what makes something pious... WHY?
-if the gods love it because it is pious ... what is pious
Socrates provides a definition stating that piety is that part of justice which tends to the gods
Socrates response to the Fourth Definition
Points out that this definition is still not good enough because piety belongs to actions that are morally good and just.What is it, asks Socrates, that makes piety different from all those other actions that we call just? We cannot say something is simply because we believe it to be so. We must find proof.
-BY THIS DEFINITION, THE GODS ARE CREATURES THAT NEED US TO CARE FOR THEM. BUT BY THIS DEFINITION HE IS SAYING THE GODS ARE NOT REALLY GODS AT ALL IF THEY NEED HUMANS.
Euthyphro states that piety is a kind of service to the gods.Socrates presses him, thinking that he is close, and asks "if we are servant s to the gods what are we helping them achieve?" and "what is that excellent aim that the gods achieve using us as their servants?"No definition is reached for Euthyphro scurries off to his trial and Socrates to his
Principal Criticism of Euthyphro
For you to persecute your own father you must know the nature of piety
Purpose of dialogue in Euthyphro
to reveal false assumptions of the pious
-socrates is able to acknowledge he does not know
-Euthyphro's desire for power blinds him, he wants to prove to Socrates he understands the will of the gods, he wants to be seen as having unique knowledge of divine will. Euthyphro DOES NOT HAVE POWER... HE DESIRES POWER
The Crito is written by who
Characters in the Crito
Crito-An old friend of Socrates
Law of Athens - Not a character in the normal sense of the word; the fact that Socrates personifies the Laws of Athens in his argument is crucial to the dialogue.
What news does Crito bring Socrates?
He brings bad news that the ship will arrive that same day and his life will come to an end the day after.
What two reasons does Crito first give Socrates for escaping from prison?
Crito would never find a friend like Socrates and people will think that Crito and Socrates' friends did not make an effort to rescue Socrates.
Crito makes 3 arguments on why Socrates should escape
betraying his sons
betraying his friends
betraying himself (by refusing to defend his life against enemies)
-Crito says escaping would do justice to himself, friends, and sons
-Socrates must now defend himself on why he is not being unjust for staying in jail.
what is 'the many'
what most people will think
What is Socrates's opinion about 'the many'? Whose opinion should one listen to, according to Socrates?
Socrates believes that one should listen to the opinion of the wise experts. "...because we don't obey the opinion of the experts, is life worth living for us when it has been corrupted" (Plato 105)? Socrates does not believe one should listen to what the public is going to think of them if they act a certain way, because the opinion that matters is the expert one.
-problem: who are the experts in justice?..
-this dialogue turns into a self questioning for Socrates and what he thinks Justice is.
for Socrates dying is not the worst thing..what is?
Socrates and Crito agree what
by escaping his jail cell Socrates would be breaking a law.
however, crito says the state has done an injustice to Socrates so it is just for him to escape.
(but Socrates says we in harming them back makes ourselves worse, and therefore harms your soul.) and so it is never okay to commit an injustice even if one has been done to you. Socrates would be doubling the injustice done to him if he escaped. He thinks escaping would be doing injustice to himself
According to the Laws of Athens Socrates owes them 3 things?
1. birth (as an Athenian citizen)
-socrates could have changed the laws if he did not like them or leave due to social contract
Because an Athenian citizen has the right to attempt to change laws s/he thinks are unjust, and to leave Athens if s/he doesn't like the laws, what kind of relationship exists between an adult citizen and the laws?
-you living in Athens is an agreement to follow the laws it is a SOCIAL CONTRACT (relationship between people and laws)
-laws agree to protect people, and people agree to follow laws.
Socrates thinks that if he harms the Laws of Athens...
then he harms Athens. And if he harms Athens then he will also be harming his sons and friends.
-therefore, he uses this to refute Crito and decides that the only way to avoid these betrayals is to allow himself to be killed and not escape
Why would it be a mistake for Socrates to escape for the sake of his children?
Socrates would be showing his children that it would be okay to break just agreements and felt that their life would be better in Athens.
Why would Socrates be breaking a just agreement if he escaped from prison?
Socrates would be breaching the agreement he made as an Athenian citizen while living in Athens.
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