69 terms

AP Human Geography Vocabulary- The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography (Chapter 13 & 14 Vocabulary)

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base ratio
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic sector
those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.
nonbasic sector
a sector in which workers are responsible for the functioning of the city itself
E.W. Burgess
a sociologist who made the concentric zone model
Bosnywash
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
census tract
an area deliniated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
central business district
the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
center city
a city surrounded by suburbs
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Walter Christaller
came up with the Central Place Theory in 1903
city
a large and densely populated urban area
city-state
a city and its surrounding lands that act as a government
complementary regions
where each individual urban center and its merchants have a sales monopoly
concentric zone model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
disamenity sector
the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
edge cities
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment
export activities
the process of exporting goods from a region
feminization of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
formative era
time where the major urban hearths came into existance
gentrification
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
ghettos
city slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures
ghettoization
the process of an area becoming more run down or shanty-like
greenbelts
undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law
hamlet
a community of people smaller than a village
Harris and Ullman
developed the multiple-nuclei model which was developed in 1945
hierarchy of central places
small centers providing lower-order services than the large centers do
Homer Hoyt
an economist who created the sector model of a city
infrastructure
the basic facilities and services that support a community
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation
manufacturing city
a city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the consturction of tenements for a growing labor force.
megacity
urban area over 10 million people
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
megastores
huge stores with a wide variety of products designed for one stop shopping
mercantile city
a city in which a central square became the focus of the city flanked by royal, religious, public, and private buildings: streets leading to such squares formed the beginnings of a downtown.
metropolitan area
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
metropolitian statistical area
a central county of counties with atleast of one urbanized area of atleast 50,000 people
micropolitan statistical area
a similar but smaller version of a metropolis, with atleast one urban cluster between 10,000-50,000 people
multiple-nucei model
counters that large cities develop by spreading nodes of growth, not just one
multiplier effect
expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity
nucleated
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)
peripheral model
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
physical city
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
primate cities
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
public housing
a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
rank-size rule
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
rush hours
the four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
sector model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
settlement geography
patterns of settlement on earth's surface: rank-size rule and Christaller's central place theory
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
study where Social Scientists compare the various distributions and create an overall picture of where various types of people tend to live
special-function cities
cities that have a special function
sprawl
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
states
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
suburbs
residential areas surrounding a city
town
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
transportation centers
major routes converge-roads,railroads, sea traffic and air transportation
urban area
a geographical area constituting a city or town
urban elite
group of socially, politically, or economically dominant figures in a society.
urban empire
a nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
urban geography
the study of how people use space in cities
urban hierarchy
a ranking of communites from largest to smallest
urban influence zone
an area outside of a city that is nevertheless affected by the city
urban renewal
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
Louis Wirth
thought that urban development leads to social and personal disorders, believed technology causes problems
world city
centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce
zone in transition
an area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
zone of maturity
old part of city, more wealthy live here, bigger houses
zone ordinances
first developed in europe and north america in the early 20th century and they encourage spatial seperation by preventing mixing of land use in the same district