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Philosophy - God
Terms in this set (45)
What are the four forms of arguments for the existence of God?
Ontological Argument, Cosmological Argument, Teleological Argument, and Transcendental Argument.
God's nature/ essence implies God's existence. Saint Anselm
Necessity of cause implies God's existence. St. Thomas Aquinas
Design or purpose in the world implies God's existence.
Actuality or possibility of the world implies God's existence
belief that a supernatural being, God, does exist
God does not exist
What are the two variants of Agnosticism and what do they mean?
Strong- belief that we cannot know if God exists
Weak- does not have a belief either way.
What are Anselm's two arguments?
Argument 1 argues that God exists not just in my understanding, but also in the world.
Argument 2 argues that it is impossible to conceive of God as not existing.
Explain Anselm's first argument
God is that being in which nothing greater can be conceived.
I conceive of God which means I have the the concept of God in my understanding.
To conceive of a being that exists in my understanding and in my world is to conceive of a being that is greater than a being that exists only in my knowledge.
Therefore, God exists not just in my understanding, but also in the world.
Explain Anselm's second argument
To have the concept of God means that you understand God.
To conceive of God is to conceive of a being that exists in the understanding and also in the world.
To deny that God exists is to conceive of a being that exists in reality and in the understanding, and then deny it's existence (contradiction).
Therefore, it is impossible to conceive God as not existing.
Explain the three objections to Anselm's arguemnts
1. existence as a predicate (Kant)
2. assumed existence vs. actual existence. (Aquinas)
3. Gaunilo's objection (proves
What are Leibniz's three O's?
Omniscient: All knowing
Omnipotent: All powerful
Omnibenevolent: All Good
What is the argument from evil against the existence of God (problem of evil)?
If God exists, then God is Omniscent, Omnipotent, and Omnibenevolent.
If God is all knowing, then God knows that all evils are happening and will be happening.
If God is all powerful, then God can stop those evils from happening.
If God is all good, then he will want and will stop all those evils from happening.
If God is Omniscent, Omnipotent, and Omnibenevolent then there shouldn't be any evil around if God does in fact exist.
Evil in fact exists. Therefore, God does not exist.
unjustified, undeserved, or unnecessary harm and suffering
a being such that you can't think of anything greater
the attempt to explain the existence of evil in defense of the existence of God
What is Leibniz's own theodicy of in response to the problem of evil?
the best plan is not always that which seeks to avoid evil
and some evils are accompanied by a greater good
Which premise does Leibniz state is wrong and why?
Omnibenevolence (God is all good) because this does not entail him to want or stop all evils.
What are Leibniz's two examples to illustrate his theodicy?
General at war and the fall of Adam
What is Leibniz's view on evil and the world? Explain why.
A world with evil is actually better than a world without evil, our world is the best of all possible worlds:
-God can only choose the best.
-He chose to create this world of all possible worlds.
-The world has evil.
-Hence, the best of all possible worlds must contain evil.
What are the two objections to Leibniz's Theodicy?
-If there is more evil than good in intelligent creatures, then
there is more evil than good in all of God's creation.
-All evil must be necessary, but It seems implausible that all pain and suffering is necessary.
What is Leibniz's free will defense? Are there any problems with it?
-Evil done through free will is not at the fault of God and a world with free will is better than a would without free will.
-Problems with it are degree of freedom, natural disasters, and divine foreknowledge.
What are Paley's three cases?
-Rock in the bushes has always been there is not absurd.
-Watch in the bushes has always been there is absurd.
-Watch design (intricate design that can be replicated)
What is Paley's view on atheism?
They believe that things in the world were always here and denies there being a maker/ designer: he believes this is absurd much like assuming the watch you saw by the bush has always been there.
What are the objections to Paley's arguments?
-One of Many Gods?
-Is God still around if he ever did exist?
-What about Evolution?
-Is it really a design?
What are the issues surrounding Paley's evolution and design?
-Evolution does not prove that God does not exist.
-Evolution could be totally compatible with design, but also could not be. If design is a random result of evolution then it is not compatible, but if design is not a random result of evolution, then it most likely is compatible.
believed the concept of God is a childish illusion
the atheist argument that everything would be perfect if actually created by a supreme being
the meaning of life is found in living with nature; rejecting wealth, power, fame
there is no meaning in life
Aristotle and Happiness
happiness is the ultimate aim in life
permanent happiness doesn't exist
faith is a matter of passion rather than reason
motion, possibility and necessity, gradation, governance of the world
God and nature are one
Descartes' Ontological Argument
God is perfect; it is more perfect to exist rather than to not exist, therefore God exists
Plato and death
death is of no concern because when you experience it, you no longer exist, and while you exist, there is no way to experience it.
everything is God or made of God
do not rely on proof or evidence; rely on the logic of concept
God and religion are but a superstition and can ultimately be harmful
there is no compelling reason to believe in miracles
If you believe in God and he exists, eternal salvation, if you believe and he doesn't, you wasted some time and missed out on some fun. If you don't believe and he does exist, eternal damnation, if you don't and he doesn't, you had some extra fun and extra time.
Death is necessary
for our appreciation of life and continued evolutionary improvement
There is no meaning to life, therefore it must be chosen and invented by you
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