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Human Geography Chapter 7: Ethnicities
Terms in this set (44)
Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth. A cultural feature that is place-based and yet another important concept for geographers.
Identity with a group of people who are perceived to share a physiological trait, such as skin color. Skin color is especially studied by geographers because it is the fundamental basis by which people in many societies sort out where they reside, attend school, spend their leisure time, and perform many other activities of daily life.
Identity with a group of people who share legal attachment to a particular country. Though also a place-based cultural feature, it is not to be confused with ethnicity.
The Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
A person who displays discrimination or feels prejudice against people of particular races.
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. One of the races classified by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. One of the races classified by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
American Indian, Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. One of the races classified by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. One of the races classified by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. One of the races classified by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
A person whose ancestry is a Spanish-speaking country in Latin America. The terms Latino (for males) and Latina (for females) are generally used interchangeably. 2/3 of this ethnicity came from Mexico, and they are clustered in the Southwest with states like Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and parts of Florida and California.
A person who traces their heritage to a number of countries in Asia. The largest numbers come from China, the Philippines, and India. They are clustered in the West, 1/2 of them living in California.
A person who traces their heritage to various African countries. This term identifies a group with extensive cultural tradition, while black simply denotes dark skin. This ethnic group's ancestors come from three areas of West Africa before they were divided into countries. They are clustered in the Southeast in states such as Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Maryland.
A term used to describe the descendants of people who lived in North America prior to the arrival of the Europeans who have multiple ethnicities. Native Americans occupy the southwest and north-central regions of the US as well as Alaska.
The country that struggles most with defining its population by race or ethnicity. 70% of its inhabitants have European ancestry, 20% African, and 10% indigenous. The census here identifies people by skin color instead, whether Branco (white, clustered in the south and west-central regions), Pardo (brown, clustered on the northern coast and west-central), Preto (black, clustered northeast), Amarelo (yellow), and indigenous (clustered north).
A place with a high concentration of an ethnic group that is distinct from those in the surrounding area. Mostly consists of neighborhoods within large cities, and they are given distinctive physical appearances and social structures through migration.
A suburban area with a cluster of a particular ethnic population.
A system whereby one person owns another person as a piece of property and can force that slave to work for the owner's benefit. The driving force that led to the forced migration of many Africans to the Western Hemisphere during the 1700's, primarily diffused by Europeans needing cheap labor.
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa. The constant forced migration of Africans involved the separation of families, village destruction, and poor conditions on the ships that had some of them perish.
A war fought between the North states of the Union and the South states of the Confederacy over contrasting views of slavery. The Confederate states favored slavery, but the Union states were against it. It lasted from 1861 to 1865 until the South finally surrendered. It was in 1863 when Abraham Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation and freed 11 Confederate states of slavery. The thirteenth amendment abolished slavery eight months after the War ended.
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays the loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops. A result of many African Americans residing in the South after the Civil War's closure. However, this system burdened poor African Americans with high interest rates and heavy debts. It became less common in the 1900's because of farm machinery and the decreased demand for cotton labor.
Four Migration Channels
The regions to which African Americans in the South undertook interregional migration. These include the West, West Central, East Central, and Northeast channels of the United States.
A term used to describe the emigration of whites from an area in anticipation of blacks immigrating into the area. Rather than integrate, whites fled.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood. The agents then sold the houses at much higher prices to black families desperate to escape overcrowded areas. A practice that fueled white flight.
A process by which financial institutions draw red-colored lines on a map and refuse to lend money for people to purchase or improve property within the lines. African Americans were prevented from getting mortgages to buy houses in the neighborhoods to which whites fled.
Jim Crow Laws
A comprehensive set of laws enacted by the southern states that aimed to segregate blacks from whites as much as possible. A response to the Supreme Court's "separate but equal philosophy, and named for a 19th century song-and-dance act that depicted blacks offensively. Blacks had to sit in the backs of buses, and shops, restaurants, and hotels could choose to serve only whites. Separate schools were established for blacks and whites.
Civil Rights Movement
A nationwide movement in favor of civil rights during the 1950's and 1960's that forced elimination of US segregation laws. Stirred by the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, as minority children were treated as inferior and unequal despite "equivalent facilities."
Black Lives Matter
A movement that campaigns against violence and perceived racism toward black people and educates others about the challenges that African Americans continue to face in the United States. Founded in 2013 after several unarmed African American men were killed. It experienced a recent resurgence after the murder of George Floyd.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas. Under these laws, a newborn baby was classified as being one of four government-designated races—black, white, colored (mixed white and black), or Asian (mostly Indian). These laws determined where different races could live, attend school, work, shop, travel, and own land, with blacks receiving the short end of the stick in comparison to whites. The laws were repealed in 1991 by the white-minority government of South Africa, releasing Nelson Mandela from prison.
An irregularly shaped country formed from when the British ended their colonial rule of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, splitting it into two. The eastern region of this country became the independent country of Bangladesh in 1971. The Bangladesh were Muslims and those in India were Hindus, and the two groups have fought over territory, further sparked by Mahatma Gandhi's assassination in 1948.
A group of Sunni Muslims who speak a language in the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European and have distinctive literature, dress, and other cultural traditions. This group is split across eastern Turkey, western Iran, northern Iraq, Syria, and other countries such as Germany. They have long fought for independence and recognition of their nationality in these areas.
A series of islands including Ireland and Great Britain. They are divided into two countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which is divided into England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom debates over whether it contains one nationality or four.
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. It typically promotes a sense of national consciousness that exalts one nation above all others and emphasizes its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nationalities. People display it by supporting a country that preserves and enhances the culture and attitudes of their nationality. An example of a centripetal force.
Fear of people of a particular ethnicity.
Fear of people who are from other countries.
A purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas.
The mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence. It changes the spatial distribution of ethnicities through force and criminal violence.
A country of 54 million inhabitants. They directed attacks against the Rohingya, an ethnic group living in the far western Rakhine State. The country's government began stripping away the State's citizenship, land, and rights to attend school and hold jobs in 1982. After the Rohingya attacked some military and police posts in 2016, the country's military launched an ethnic cleansing against the group and forced them to flee to other countries.
A former super-country that contained a diverse selection of ethnicities. In June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serb who sought independence for Bosnia, starting World War I. After World War I, the Allies created this new country to unite several Balkan ethnicities that spoke similar South Slavic languages. Country President Josip Broz Tito promoted a uniform nationality across the country's areas and allowed the five most numerous ethnicities (Croat, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Serb, and Slovene) to exercise considerable control over the areas they inhabited. Tito's death however caused discourse among these ethnicities in the 1980's and caused the country to break apart.
One of the countries that was once a part of Yugoslavia. Looked after by the Serbs, they gained direct control after Yugoslavia split apart and began an ethnic cleansing of the country's Albanians, who made up 82% of the population. These attacks warranted intervention from the United States and Western European countries, which led Serbia to withdraw its forces from the country. This country declared independence from Serbia in 2008.
Bosnia & Herzegovina
The most ethnically diverse republic of the former Yugoslavia responsible for the largest scale of ethnic cleansing in the nation. 2.7 million people were ethnically cleansed in 1991-1992. The Serbs and Croats sought to further separate the ethnicities into distinct regions and break away from these countries, so they engaged in ethnic cleansing of the Bosniaks. The countries were divided into three regions in 1996 each dominated by the Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs. The Croats and Serbs were charged of war crimes after their cleansing, but they had succeeded in separating the ethnic groups.
The term used for a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into stable countries because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
The term coined by world leaders and geographers defined as the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. With the Hutus being farmers and the Tutsis being cattle herders, the two classes were similar yet Tutsis ruled over the majority population of Hutus in Rwanda, making them their serfs. When Rwanda gained independence in 1962, Hutus gained power and undertook ethnic cleansing and genocide against the Tutsis.
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