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A&P Unit 2 - Biochemistry and Nutrition
Terms in this set (49)
up; back; again
a substance subjected to a process of decomposition
Electrolyte that ionizes in water and releases hydrogen ions.
Metabolic reactions that buildup larger molecules from smaller ones and requires energy.
Substance that combine with hydrogen ions
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 Celsius. A unit to measure energy in food.
Oranic compounds used primarily to supply energy for cellular processes..
Metabolic reactions that breakdown larger molecules into smaller ones and releases energy.
Molecules that speed up chemical reactions.
A nutrients source that contains an adequate amount of the essential amino acids; such as milk, meats, and eggs.
A type of bond resultng from the sharing of electrons between atoms.
Molecules that release ions in water.
Complex molecules that are usually proteins that promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.
Essential amino acid
Amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body; amino acids only acquired by diet.
Essential fatty acid
Fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the liver such as linoleic and arachidonic acid.
Compounds that human cells cannot synthesize (such as certain amino acids).
Glycemic index (GI)
A measurement that describes how quickly a food hikes blood glucose and therefore insulin secretion.
The attraction of the positive hydrogen end of a polar molecule to the negative nitrogen or oxygen end of another polar molecule.
Nutrients sources that has too little essential amino acids to support normal growth and development.
Chemicals that do not contain carbon and oxygen.
Atoms that gain or lose electrons that become electrically charged.
A type of bond resulting from oppositely charged ions attracting.
Organic substances that are insoluble in water but soluble in certain organic solvents.
Compounds required in large amounts such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, & Mg
If a diet lacks essential nutrients or a person fails to use available foods to best advantage; the result of either unernutrition or overnutrition.
Compounds required in much smaller amounts such as vitamins and minerals.
Elements other than carbon that are essential in human metabolism.
Molecules where the electrons are shared equally by the atoms and then there is no resulting charge.
Molecules that contain atoms of C, H, O, N, and P that form the building blocks for nucleotides.
Necessary compounds of the body that include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Chemicals that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms.
The values that measure the hydrogen ion concentration in a substance.
A molecule whose shape gives an unequal distribution of charges.
Organic substances made from amino acids with a wide variety of functions in the body.
Fatty acid molecules with few or no double bonds; solid at room temperature.
The specific chemical that an an ezyme acts on.
Essential minerals found in minute amounts. These include: Fe, Mn, Cu, I, Co, Z, F, Se, and Cr.
Fatty acid molecules with double bonds; liquids at room temperature.
Organic compounds that are required in small amounts for normal metabolism, but that cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts.
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