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Chapter 9-Jeffersonian America

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Alexis de Tocqueville
(1805-1859) Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Egalitarian
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people.
Suffrage Reforms
Starting in Ohio and the West, all white males could vote, not just landed ones. Older eastern states began to extend this right, too, because they were concerned about population loss to the west and thought it might give people more of an incentive to stay. The wave of suffrage reforms leads to Dorr rebellion. Nowhere could blacks or women vote, and nowhere was the ballot secret.
Dorr Rebellion
In 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas Dorr led a group of rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr was sentenced to life imprisonment, but the sentence was withdrawn. Dorr's Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need for reform. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all men the right to vote.
Spoils System
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
John C. Calhoun
The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Tariff of 1828
A protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
Tariff of 1832
The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Nullification Crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate.
Martin van Buren
Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
Webster-Hayne Debate
It was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union.
"Five Civilized Tribes"
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion.
Removal Act of 1830
Appropriated money to go to federal negotiations with tribes to relocate them in the West. Under this and the pressure from the states, most tribes ceded land with little payment. This act was in direct contradiction to Georgia vs. Worcester. Some tribes resisted, like Cherokees and Seminoles, which leads to the Trail of Tears and the Second Seminole War.
Worcester vs. Georgia
The Court ruled that the Cherokee nation was a distinct community in which the laws of Georgia had no force.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Second Seminole War
(1835-1842) Conflicts between Seminoles and the US. The Seminoles tried to retain their land in Florida. It was the most expensive Indian War fought by the United States.
Nicholas Biddle
He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.
Hard and Soft Money
Soft money-more currency in circulation; believed that issuing bank notes unsupported by gold and silver was the best way to circulate currency. This group consisted largely of state bankers; they objected the Bank of the United States because it restrained the state banks from issuing notes freely. Supporters believed in rapid economic growth and speculation
Hard money- (Jackson) gold and silver are the only basis for money; condemned all Banks (including the Bank of the United States) that issued bank notes. Supporters looked with suspicion on expansion and speculation.
The Taney Court
Jackson appointed Roger B. Taney as chief justice in 1835 when Marshall died; he did not bring a sharp break in constitutional interpretation, but he gradually helped modify Marshall's nationalism.
The Whig Party
This party wanted expanding power of the federal government, encouraged industrial and commercial development, and was cautious about westward expansion because they feared it would produce instability. It encouraged rising to commercial and manufacturing power and was found favorable to the merchants and manufacturers of the Northeast, the wealthy planters of the South, and the farmers of the West. This party also attracted Evangelical Protestants.
Panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
The Penny Press
Early 19th Cent-inexpensive, widely circulated papers that became popular in the nineteenth century. They were the first American media to be supported primarily through advertising revenue. Became possible because of steam printing.
William Henry Harrison
Was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
John Tyler
Elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842
This settled the Aroostook War, which involved a series of skirmishes over the boundary separating Maine and Canada. Relations were improved.
Treaty of Wang Hya of 1844
Caleb Cushing went to China to negotiate a treaty giving the US part of China trade. In this treaty Americans got the same privileges of trade as the English in China. He also got extraterritoriality: Americans accused of crimes in China can be tried by and American.