Acadec - Social Science

Able Archer 83
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Terms in this set (179)
Berlin Airliftfrom June 1948 to May 1949, the heroic aerial provisioning of West Berlin by U.S. and British pilots following a Soviet blockade of the divided cityBerrigan, Phillipa Catholic priest and antiwar activist who was arrested for destroying draft files in MarylandBlacklistto fire individuals and bar them from employment because of their past affiliation with the Communist Party or leftist causesBlatThe Russian word for "connections," used to describe the prevalence of clientelism and interpersonal relationships in which favors are exchanged between elites, between elites and masses, and between members of the general population. (the black-market system of favors and barter that thrived in the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc during the economic downturn of the 1970s and 1980s)Boeing Companya Seattle-based defense contractor that manufactures aircraft, missiles, and heavy equipment for the U.S. Air ForceBolsheviksthe dominant faction of Russia's banned revolutionary Marxist political party that orchestrated the October Revolution and triumphed in the Russian Civil War; its early members included many future Soviet leaders, including Lenin and Stalin.Brezhnev Doctrinethe Soviet foreign policy named for Premier Leonid Brezhnev and announced in 1968 that pledged Moscow's support for beleaguered Marxist governments but was used to stifle liberal reforms in Communist Czechoslovakia; the policy was later invoked during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KansasThe 1954 Supreme Court case that ruled racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutionalBrzezinski, ZbigniewThe Polish-born National Security Advisor in the Carter Administration who was known for his hardline stance toward the Soviet UnionCastro, FidelThe charismatic military leader of the Cuban Revolution and longtime leader of Cuba's Communist governmentChambers, WhittakerAn ex-Communist journalist who confessed to spying for the Soviets in the late 1930s; Whittaker accused his friend Alger Hiss of espionage at the HUAC hearings in 1948 and later provided congressional investigators with bombshell evidence, which he hid in a hollowed-out pumpkin.Chernobyl Disastera 1986 nuclear accident at a power plant in Ukraine that generated far-ranging toxic radioactive pollution and led to the evacuation of several thousand Soviet citizensChurchill, WinstonThe British Prime Minister during World War II, he coined the phrase "Iron Curtain" in a 1946 speech delivered in Fulton, Missouri.Cold War Consensusrefers to the bipartisan commitment within the United States to an anti-communist foreign policy and domestic capitalism during the earlyCold War Collectivized Agriculturea key feature of Stalin's economic agenda, in which private land was violently consolidated into massive state-owned farmsCominforman international communist organization founded by Stalin in 1947 to coordinate the policies and actions of communist statesCommunist Party of the United States (CPUSA)the official American communist party, whose top leadership was tried in federal court for violating the Smith Act in 1948-49Containmentthe Truman Administration's strategy to economically, militarily, and politically counter Soviet influence around the globe in order to "contain" the spread of international communism; originally devised by George F. KennanContrasa Nicaraguan anti-communist force, covertly trained by the United States and based in Honduras, that waged a protracted campaign to topple the Sandinista government population and foreign espionageThe Crucible - an allegorical play by Arthur Miller that debuted in 1953; the play's setting is the seventeenthcentury Salem Witch trials, but it offered a commentary on anti-communist hysteria in mid-century America.Cuban Missile Crisisa stand-off between the United States and the Soviet Union prompted by the Soviet installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba; resolved on October 28, 1962, when Soviet leaders agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a public declaration that the United States would not invade Cuba and the secret removal of U.S. missiles from TurkeyCult of personalityhero-worship of the leader, which featured in many totalitarian regimes, including Stalin's Soviet Union and Mao's ChinaCultural Revolutiona violent campaign to root out alleged counter-revolutionary elements from Chinese society that began in 1966, crippling the state and killing nearly one million Chinese citizensThe Day Aftera fictional ABC movie dramatizing a nuclear attack on Lawrence, Kansas, that premiered in 1983; it was one of the most viewed programs in U.S. television history.Decolonizationthe post-World War II push for independence by African and Asian peoples living in territories that had been European colonies; resulted in scores of new nations from 1947 to 1977Democratic People's Republic of KoreaCommunist North KoreaDennis v. United Statesthe 1951 Supreme Court case that upheld the conviction of the CPUSA's leaders for violating the Smith ActDerguethe revolutionary Marxist junta that took power in Ethiopia in 1974; backed by the Soviet Union and Cuba in war with neighboring Somalia in 1977De-StalinizationKhrushchev's program to move the Soviet Union away from the political repression of the Stalinist-era by freeing prisoners and allowing for some discussion of Stalin's crimesDétentea period of improved relations between the United States and Communist powers, particularly China, during the Nixon administrationDiem, Ngo Dinhthe U.S.-backed Catholic authoritarian leader of the Republic of Vietnam from 1954 until 1963, when he was assassinated in a military coupDoctor Zhivagothe Nobel-prize winning novel by Soviet author Boris Pasternak, who refused the prize and was subjected to political repression by Soviet authorities, who viewed his work as subversiveDomino Theorya metaphor that became shorthand for the U.S. fear that once a state fell to communism, its neighbors, like dominoes toppling in a row, would soon follow, leading an entire region to come under communist control; popularized by EisenhowerDow Chemical Companythe manufacturer of Saran Wrap, among other products, that was targeted by student antiwar protestors for supplying napalm to the U.S. militaryDraftthe colloquial term for the conscription of young men into military service; the draft was one of the most unpopular features of the Vietnam War.Dulles, Allenthe first director of the CIA (1953-61) who oversaw the agency's expansion during the Eisenhower Administration; he was instrumental in the elevation of clandestine intervention within U.S. foreign policy; he was the brother of John Foster Dulles.Dulles, John FosterU.S. Secretary of State (1953-59), and the brother of Allen Dulles, who championed massive retaliation as the official policy of the United States Eastern Bloc - the Communist states of Eastern Europe, including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, that were allied with the Soviet Union; also called Soviet satellitesEisenhower Doctrinethe U.S. foreign policy announced in 1957 that pledged to defend Middle Eastern nations that faced Communist insurgenciesEllsberg, Daniela former Department of Defense official who leaked the Pentagon Papers to the press in an attempt to stop the Vietnam WarEn-lai, ZhouCommunist China's first premier (1949- 76) and foreign minister (1949-58), who acted as China's bridge to the Non-Aligned Movement and helped usher in détente with the United States Evil Empire speech - a 1983 keynote address delivered by Ronald Reagan that characterized the president's sharp moralistic rhetoric during his first termExecutive Order 9835Signed by Harry Truman in 1947 to establish a loyalty program requiring federal employees to sign loyalty oaths and undergo security checks (Truman's 1947 directive that instituted a loyalty oath for all federal employees)Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - the domestic law enforcement agency that led an anti-communist surveillance campaign against an ever-growing list of potential subversivesFederal Republic of Germany - West Germany; its capital was Bonn.Five-Year Plans - the standard method of planning for economic development in the Soviet planned economy in which all production goals were set by the central governmentFour Freedoms - the freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear; FDR's concise summation of the Allied War aims as described in his January 6, 1941, State of the Union AddressFree-market capitalism - an economic system in which goods are traded according to the market demands of supply and demand, uninhibited by protectionist tariffsGarst, Roswell - an Iowa farmer who befriended Khrushchev in 1955 and supplied the Soviet Union with thousands of tons of hybrid corn seedGeneva Accords (1954) - a peace agreement that formally granted Vietnam independence but partitioned the former French colony at the 17th parallel and called for national elections in 1956 for a unified Vietnam government; the elections were never held.German Democratic Republic - East Germany; it was a communist state allied with the Soviet Union, whose capital was East Berlin.Glasnost - "openness"; Gorbachev's domestic reform of Soviet culture and society, which included increased freedom of the press and cultural exchangeGlobal South - a term for the former colonized nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaGreat Leap Forward - a period of intense crash industrialization begun by Mao in the late-1950s that aimed to modernize China's economyGulag - a network of forced labor camps located in remote regions of the Soviet Union, where millions of political prisoners were sent during the Stalinist purgesGulf of Tonkin Resolution - the congressional resolution that granted President Johnson wide authority to use "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the United States and to prevent further aggression," which was passed on August 7, 1964, following erroneous reports that North Vietnamese patrols had fired on American warships in the Gulf of TonkinHammarskjöld, Dag - the Norwegian UN Secretary General who was killed in a plane crash while mediating the Congo CrisisHelsinki Final Act - a Human rights declaration signed by the Soviet Union during the 1975 summit on European security and cooperation; it was used by dissidents to press for further reforms.Hiss, Alger - a State Department official accused of espionage and convicted of perjury in 1950 for his testimony in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)Hitler, Adolph - the dictatorial leader of Nazi Germany, who was responsible for the systematic murder of Jews and other groups; died by suicide on April 30, 1945Ho Chi Minh - a prominent Vietnamese revolutionary and president of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1969; nicknamed "Uncle Ho," he led his nation's struggle for independence from the French, resistance of the Japanese occupation during WWII, and fight for a unified Communist Vietnam against the United States.Hollywood Ten - a group of screenwriters imprisoned for refusing to answer questions or identify communists in the film industry during the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) hearings in 1947Hoover, J. Edgar - the rabidly anti-communist director of the FBI who greatly expanded the bureau's domestic surveillance programs during the Cold WarHouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) - a House committee that investigated communist subversion in American society; during its prime, from 1947 to 1958, HUAC accused hundreds of Americans of disloyalty based on their membership in the Communist Party (CPUSA) or related leftist groups.Hungarian uprising - the 1956 popular movement to bring democratic reforms to Communist Hungary that was brutally suppressed by a Soviet invasionHydrogen bomb - an atomic bomb that utilized nuclear fusion to produce explosions several orders of magnitude more destructive than fission bombsInchon - the location of a daring amphibious landing on September 15, 1950, by Gen. Douglass MacArthur's forces during the Korean WarIntermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - a landmark nuclear arms agreement signed by Gorbachev and Reagan in 1987 that significantly reduced the European arsenals of both powersIran-Contra affair - a scandal during Reagan's second term involving the secret sale of arms to Iran and funneling of the profits to the Nicaraguan Contras, in direct violation of a congressional banIron Curtain - the term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the Cold War divide between Western Europe and the Soviet satellites of Eastern EuropeJackson, Henry "Scoop" - the anti-communist Democratic senator from Washington who was also known as "the senator from Boeing" for his lobbying on behalf of the Seattle-based defense contractor; in 1974, he was responsible for amending trade legislation to include human rights provisions.Kai-shek, Chiang - a military general and authoritarian leader of Nationalist China driven to Taiwan in 1949 by Mao's Communist forces in the Chinese Civil WarJim Crow - a phrase used to refer to legal and extralegal racial discrimination prevalent throughout the United States, especially in Southern states, from 1896 to the mid-1960sKennedy, Robert F. - the U.S. Attorney General (1961- 64) during the Cuban Missile crisis who helped his brother, President John F. Kennedy, avert nuclear war; he was later assassinated while seeking the Democratic Party nomination for president in 1968.Katanga region - the resource-rich southern province that seceded from the Republic of Congo shortly after the nation gained independence in 1960KGB - acronym for the Soviet secret police and spy agency responsible for both internal surveillance of the Soviet population and foreign espionageKhomeini, Ayatollah - a Shi'a religious figure who returned from exile to lead the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran; he refused to authorize the release of American hostages held in the U.S. Embassy in Tehran for 444 days.Kitchen Debate - an impromptu debate on July 24, 1959, between Khrushchev and Nixon in a model-kitchen of the American Exhibition in MoscowKissinger, Henry - a Jewish émigré and Harvard scholar who served as the U.S. National Security Advisor (1969-75) and Secretary of State (1973-77); he was the key architect of détente and the primary U.S. negotiator in the peace talks that ended the Vietnam War.Kremlinologist - a term for an academic Soviet expert who studied public statements from Moscow for clues to the private political dynamics within the top ranks of the Soviet Communist PartyKorean War - a conflict that began in 1950 when Communist North Korea invaded South Korea; U.S. forces fought the Chinese and North Korean militaries until 1953.Liberal democracy - a democratic system of representative government in which citizens also enjoy civil liberties such as freedom of speechLenin, Vladimir - a Bolshevik and the first leader of the Soviet Union, whose ideas about revolution provided the intellectual and political framework for official Soviet ideology; he was succeeded by Stalin after his death in 1924.Loyalty Program - the system for screening federal employees instituted by President Truman in March of 1947Long Telegram - a telegram sent by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan in 1946 outlining his views of the Soviet Union that inspired Truman's containment strategyLumumba, Patrice - the first prime minister of the Republic of Congo who was assassinated in 1961 after his government was toppled by a CIA-backed military coupLysenko, Trofim - a Soviet geneticist who rejected Darwin's theory of evolution and argued that environmental factors determined biological traitsMadman strategy - President Nixon's strategy to gain leverage in negotiations by appearing reckless and unpredictableMacArthur, Douglas - the U.S. Army General who led the American assault on the Philippines during World War II and then commanded U.S. troops in the Korean War; he was dismissed from his post by President Truman in 1951 after publicly criticizing the Commander-in-Chief's military strategy.Manhattan Project - a top-secret American program during World War II to develop an atomic bombMarshall Plan - the U.S. program for the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe through massive economic aid to Allied nations as well as former enemies, such as Germany; named for Gen. George Marshall, the U.S. Secretary of State who proposed it in 1947Marx, Karl - a nineteenth-century German intellectual and author of the influential Communist Manifesto (1848), which provided the framework for class-based revolutions in the twentieth centuryMarxism-Leninism - the official ideology of the Soviet Union that blended Karl Marx's economic interpretation of history with the revolutionary ideas of LeninMcCarthyism - a wave of political repression spearheaded by Congress and the FBI to uncover and expose Communists; it peaked from 1950 to 1954 when Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin publicly declared that dozens of Communists had infiltrated the U.S. government and military.Massive retaliation - a nuclear strategy favored by John Foster Dulles that relied on the threat of extremely destructive retaliatory strikes to deter first strikes from the enemyMcNamara, Robert S. - A former auto executive who served as U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, McNamara became closely identified with the escalation of American involvement in Vietnam under President Johnson.Missile gap - the erroneous claim, made frequently by John F. Kennedy during the 1960 presidential campaign, that the nuclear arsenal of the United States had fallen behind that of the Soviet UnionMilitary-industrial complex - the concept of "an immense military establishment" combined with a "permanent arms industry," which President Eisenhower warned Americans to stay vigilant of in his 1961 farewell addressMossadegh, Mohammad - the democratically elected prime minister of Iran who was ousted in a CIA coup in 1953Mobutu, Joseph - a military officer and trusted aide to Patrice Lumumba who led a CIA-backed military coup in 1960 that deposed Lumumba and later took control of the Republic of CongoMujahideen - an anti-Soviet coalition of Islamic fighters in Afghanistan, funded and armed by the CIA; they included many foreigners, including Osama bin Laden, the architect of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.Nagy, Imre - the reformist prime minister of Communist Hungary who was executed for his role in the 1956 Hungarian uprisingMutually assured destruction (MAD) - a nuclear strategy favored by Robert McNamara that called on the United States and the Soviet Union to target heavily populated civilian areas in order to inflict the maximum number of causalities as a way of rendering any rational application of nuclear war mootOffensive - coordinated attacks launched in January 1968 by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces on South Vietnamese cities that were timed to coincide with the celebration of the new year holidayNapalm - a flammable gel manufactured by Dow Chemical for use in incendiary bombs dropped over the jungles of Vietnam; responsible for horrific civilian injuriesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - the federal agency created by Eisenhower to compete with Soviet advances in outer-space satellite technology and the main American entity engaged in the Cold War "space race"Nash, John - a Princeton mathematician and the Nobel Prize-winning pioneer of game theoryNazi-Soviet Pact - the non-aggression treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union signed on August 23, 1939, that divided Eastern Europe between the two powers; also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact after the foreign ministers and signatories of each nation; the pact was later violated by Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.New Look - Eisenhower's foreign policy strategy that aimed to save money by relying on nuclear weapons and covert action over conventional arms and forcesNeoconservatives - hardline anti-communists who helped shape Reagan's aggressive interventionist foreign policy, especially in Latin AmericaNon-alignment - a movement led by leaders of newly independent nations in Asia and Africa to declare neutrality in the Cold WarNSC-68 - a top-secret policy memorandum, written by Paul Nitze in 1950, that outlined a shift from containment to an aggressive and militaristic approach to stopping the spread of global communismNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - a security alliance founded in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the United States, and Canada to deter Soviet expansion in EuropeOperation AJAX - the code name for the 1953 CIA coup that ousted Mohammad Mossadegh and brought Reza Shah Pahlavi to power in IranNuclear proliferation - the spread of atomic weapons and the steady increase in the total number of warheads in existenceNuclear deterrence - a strategy that assigns the primary value of nuclear weapons to their ability to deter the enemy from taking unwanted or aggressive actions through credible threats of attackOppenheimer, J. Robert - the lead scientist on the Manhattan Project; as a civilian consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission, he argued against the development of the hydrogen bomb and for nuclear non-proliferation, which led the FBI to investigate him for potential communist ties.Operation PBSUCCESS - the code name for the 1954 CIA coup that ousted Jacobo Arbenz and installed a U.S.-backed military dictatorship in Guatemala Operation Urgent Fury - the code name for the 1983 U.S. invasion of GrenadaPahlavi, Reza Shah - the American-backed dictator of Iran who came to power following a CIA coup in 1953 and who was overthrown in the 1979 IslamicPentagon Papers - a classified report on the Vietnam War that revealed how the government had repeatedly misled the American people on the progress of the war; leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg and published by The New York Times and The Washington Post in 1971Revolution Paris Peace Accords - the 1973 treaty that officially ended the Vietnam WarPeople's Republic of China - Communist China, founded in 1949 by Mao ZedongPerestroika - one pillar of Gorbachev's reforms that focused on "restructuring" the Soviet economic and political systemsPope John Paul II - the anti-communist Polish priest who became pope in 1978 and inspired millions of his native countrymen to resist communism and preserve their Catholic identities on an official visit in 1979Ping-pong diplomacy - goodwill exhibition matches between the U.S. and Chinese national table tennis teams played in China in April 1971; credited with advancing détentePowers, Gary - the pilot of a U-2 spy plane that was shot down over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960; he was tried and convicted of espionage by Soviet authorities and served close to two years in Soviet prison.Prague Spring - the brief period of social, political, and cultural liberalization in Communist Czechoslovakia in 1968; it was crushed by the Soviet invasion on August 20, 1968.Proletarian - a Marxist term referring to the working class of an industrial societyPumpkin Papers - pages of State Department documents allegedly typed by Alger Hiss and stashed in a hollow Pumpkin by Whittaker ChambersReagan Doctrine - interventionist foreign policy designed to "roll back" communist gains around the world that was championed by neoconservatives within the Reagan administrationRepublic of Korea - South Korea Robeson, Paul - an African-American singer and civil rights activist whose passport was revoked by the State Department in 1950 following his public praise of the Soviet UnionRed-baiting - the practice of tarnishing a person's reputation through unfounded accusations of involvement with communismRosenbergs, Julius and Ethel - Tried, convicted, and executed in 1953 for espionage, the Rosenbergs were the only Americans to meet this fate during the Cold War.Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) - the U.S.-Soviet arms control treaty signed on May 26, 1972, in Moscow that limited the quantity of nuclear warheads each nation could possess and prohibited the development of missile defense systemsSALT II - the U.S.-Soviet arms control treaty negotiated from 1973 to 1979; it was signed by President Carter and Premier Brezhnev in 1979 but was pulled from the U.S. Senate before it was ratified.Samizdat - "self-published" copies of banned literature, typed and circulated in secret to avoid state censors that became increasingly prevalent after 1968 in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc statesSampson, Edith - an anti-communist African-American lawyer, who served as the alternate U.S. Delegate to the United Nations and a State Department goodwill ambassador; she played a central role in U.S. cultural diplomacy in the mid-1950s.Secret Speech - Nikita Khrushchev's February 25, 1956, speech to the twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that catalogued and condemned Stalin's crimesSandinistas - the Marxist-Leninist rebel movement in Nicaragua that overthrew the U.S.-backed dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979 and then battled the CIAfunded Contras in the nation's long-running civil warSecret War - the covert bombing campaign and CIA-led military operations in Laos and Cambodia during the Vietnam WarSecurity dilemma - a game theory concept popularized in political science; refers to the paradoxical effects of one nation's attempt to increase its own security that causes a rival to build up its defenses, leading in turn to an arms race that imperils the safety of both nationsShinkolobwe mine - located in Congo's Katanga region, the mine contained the world's richest uranium and was the main source of nuclear fuel for the United States from 1941 to 1959 Sino-Soviet split - the progressive breakdown of relations between Communist China and the Soviet Union that began in the 1950sSmith Act - the 1940 law that made it illegal to knowingly conspire to teach and advocate the overthrow or destruction of the U.S. governmentSolidarityThe first independent trade union in a Communist nation, founded in Gdansk, Poland, in 1980 and led by Lech Wałęsa; it was dissolved by the state in 1982; in Poland's first democratic elections in 1989, Solidarity won many seats in the nation's parliament, and Wałęsa became president in 1990.Smith-Mundt Act - a 1948 law that created the United States Information Agency to counter Soviet cultural diplomacySolzhenitsyn, Alexander - a gulag survivor, NobelPrize-winning author, and Soviet political dissident who was deported in 1974Soviet satellites - the Communist states of Eastern Europe, including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, which were allied with the Soviet UnionSputnik I - the first ever manmade satellite to orbit the earth, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957; the achievement spurred a "space race" between the United States and the Soviet Union as each tried to match and outpace the other's technology.Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) - the controversial missile defense system proposed by Ronald Reagan to intercept incoming strikes using lasers in outer-space; nicknamed "Star Wars" by criticsStudents for a Democratic Society (SDS) - a major force behind antiwar protests on college campuses in the late 1960sSuez Crisis - Following the Egyptian government's nationalization of the canal zone in 1956, British, French, and Israeli forces launched an invasion but were forced to withdraw following pressure from the United States.Tet Third World - a term for newly independent nations in Africa and Asia as well as less developed nations in Latin America; see also, Global South. Thirty-eighth Parallel - the partition line dividing North and South KoreaTiananmen Square - Located at the entrance of the Forbidden City in Beijing, the centrally located square became the site of pro-democracy protests that began in April 1989. On June 4, Red Army units ruthlessly dispersed the crowd, injuring and killing an unknown number of demonstrators.Totalitarianism - a term for aggressive, ideologically driven states that seek to control all aspects of society through propaganda and utilize force to stamp out individual civil liberties and dissentTruman Doctrine - Truman's Cold War policy, announced in 1947, pledging U.S. aid to European countries —specifically Greece and Turkey—threatened by communismU-2 spy plane - specially designed aircraft used to fly high-altitude aerial reconnaissance missions in the 1950s; the downing of a U-2 over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960, led to an international diplomatic incident that badly damaged U.S.-Soviet relations.United Nations - an organization of nations created in 1945 and headquartered in New York to provide a forum for discussion and peaceful resolution of world issues; the U.S. and Soviet Union were both founding members.United States Information Agency (USIA) - a subdivision of the U.S. Department of State created in 1953 that was responsible for America's cultural diplomacy initiativesVelvet Revolution - the peaceful transfer of power in Czechoslovakia in 1989 from the Communist party to the democratically elected president and playwright Vaclav HavelViet Cong - an armed Communist insurgency in South Vietnam, also known as the National Liberation Front, that waged a guerilla war to overthrow the U.S.-backed Republic of Vaclav HavelViet Cong - an armed Communist insurgency in South Vietnam, also known as the National Liberation Front, that waged a guerilla war to overthrow the U.S.-backed Republic of VietnamViet Minh - a Vietnamese independence movement led by Ho Chi Minh that defeated the French Army at Dien Bien Phu in 1954Vietnam Syndrome - the belief, following the disaster of the Vietnam War, that the United States should be cautious in deploying military force abroadVietnamization - a strategy adopted by President Nixon in 1969 to shift the fighting to the South Vietnamese army to allow for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from VietnamVirgin lands campaign - the failed Khrushchev initiative to increase Soviet agricultural production by sending settlers to grow staple crops in remote regions of the Soviet UnionVon Neumann, John - a mathematician and the father of game theory Warsaw Pact - the Soviet-led security alliance of Eastern bloc nations that formed as an answer to the Americanled NATO alliance in 1955 Wehrmacht - Nazi Germany's armed forcesWilson, Woodrow - the American president during World War I known for his idealistic internationalism; Wilson's Fourteen-Point Peace Plan included a commitment to national self-determination, freedom of the seas, and the creation of the League of Nations to mediate international conflictXiaoping, Deng - the leader of Communist China from 1978 to 1992; oversaw economic reforms and the brutal crackdown on pro-democracy protestors in Tiananmen Square in 1989Yalta Conference - the final meeting of the Allied Big Three—Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin—held in February 1945 at a Soviet resort on the Black Sea to plan for the postwar orderZedong, Mao - the revolutionary leader and first premier of the People's Republic of China; Mao's ideology and model of guerilla war were especially influential in the former colonial worldZero-sum - a term from game theory referring to any competition in which a victory for one side results in a loss for the other side and vice-versa