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C459 Module 7: Sampling - Quiz
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This is a fill-in-the-blank style quiz.
Terms in this set (43)
Two steps to producing data are _____ and study design.
sampling
It is essential that the _______ be truly representative of the largest population
sample
Studies should be designed to discover what we want to know about the variables of interest for individuals in the ________.
sample
________ does not imply causation.
correlation
A sample that produces data that is not representative because of the systematic under- or over-estimations of the values of the variable of interest is called _____.
bias
_______ may result from either a poor sampling plan or from poor design for evaluation the variable of interest.
bias
________ is where individuals have offered to participate in the study.
volunteer sample
A(n) ________ is almost guaranteed to be biased because participants tend to be comprised of individual who have a particularly strong opinion about and issue and are looking for an opportunity to voice it. They may also be motivated to participate out of desperation.
volunteer sample
A(n) ________ is sometimes the only ethical way to obtain a sample, example medical studies.
volunteer sample
A(n) _______ sample is where individuals happen to be at the right time and place to suit the schedule of the researcher.
convenience
Posting a music lover's survey on a university internet bulletin board and asking students to vote for their favorite type is called a(n) ________.
volunteer sample
Standing outside the student union and asking students passing by to respond to your questions about music preference is a(n) _______ sample.
convenience
A convenience sample may also be susceptible to _____ because certain types of individuals are more likely to be selected than others. In the extreme, some convenience samples are designed in such a way that certain individuals have no chance at all of being selected.
bias
Ask your professors for email rosters of all the students in your classes. Randomly sample some addresses, and email those students with your question about musical preference. In this case, the roster is considered the ________.
sampling frame
_________ lists potential individuals to be samples and may not match the population of interest.
sampling frame
Sampling frame can introduce _____ because the sampling frame may not match the population as closely as possible.
bias
Obtain a student directory with email addresses of all the university's students, and send the music poll to every 50th name on the list is an example of _______ sampling.
systematic
The safest way to avoid bias is to use _______ sampling.
random
______ sampling is when individuals are sampled completely at random, and without replacement, then each individual is equally likely to be selected.
simple random sample (SRS)
Obtain a student directory with email addresses of all the university's students, and send your music poll to a randomized subset is an example of ________.
simple random sample (SRS)
In an SRS (simple random sample), suppose only 40% of people sent back their votes. This study potentially has bias from Non Response and __________.
volunteer response
A simple random sample is the _______ way to base a selection on randomness.
easiest
A(n) ______ is the simplest probability sampling plan, it is equivalent to selecting random names out of a hat, where each individual has the same chance of being selected.
simple random sample (SRS)
_______ sampling is sampling technique is used when our population is naturally divided into groups. This technique includes some of the groups
in their entirety
.
cluster
In ________ sampling, we take a random sample of groups (or sub-populations), and use all the individuals within the selected clusters as our sample.
cluster
In order to get a sample of high-school seniors from a certain city, you choose 3 high schools at random from among all the high schools in that city, and use all the high school seniors in the three selected high schools as your sample, this is an example of _______ sampling
cluster
________ sampling is used when our population is naturally divided into groups. This technique ensures that each of the some of the groups is equally represented..
stratified
All the students in a certain college are divided by gender or by year in college; all the registered voters in a certain city are divided by race are examples of ______.
groups
In _______ sampling, we choose a simple random sample from each group, and our sample consists of all these simple random samples put together.
stratified
In order to get a random sample of high-school seniors from a certain city, we choose a random sample of 25 seniors from each of the high schools in that city. Our sample consists of all these samples put together. This is called a(n) ______ sample.
stratified
In ______ sampling, we take a random sample of groups, and include every individual from those groups.
cluster
In ______ sampling, we take a simple random sample (SRS) of every group.
stratified
______ sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling.
multistage
_______ refers to individuals who do not go along with the researchers' intention to include them in a study.
nonresponse
If there are too many nonrespondents, and they are different from respondents in an important way, the sample may have _____.
bias
_______ sampling makes the sampling process more manageable by working down from a large population to successively smaller groups within the population, taking advantage of stratifying or clustering along the way, and often finishes up with either a cluster sample or a simple random sample.
multistage
A _______ sampling plan (such as a simple random sample, cluster, or stratified sampling) will result in a nonbiased sample, which can be safely used to make inferences
probability
The entire group of individuals to be studied is called a ______.
population
A(n) _____ is a person/object that is a member of the population to be studied.
individual
A(n) ____ is a subset of the population that will be studied.
sample
Selecting every 8th from a list is an example of ________ sampling.
systematic
______ is the number of participants in a study and determines the accuracy of the predictions we make based on the surveys.
sample size
The larger the ________, the more accurate the survey.
sample
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