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AP World History Vocabulary for Chapter 30, 31
Terms in this set (34)
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor and organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence.
Region of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century. The 1905 split of the province into predominantly Hindu West Bengal and Middle East Bengal (Bangladesh) sparked until British riots.
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. In 1940, the League began demanding a separate state for Muslims, to be called Pakistan.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. He became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. He appealed to the poor,led nonviolent demonstrations against British colonial rule, and was jailed many times. Soon after independence he was assassinated for attempting to stop Hindu-Muslim rioting.
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded state of Pakistan in 1913. As leader of League from 1920s, negotiated with British and Indian National Congress for Muslim participation in Indian politics. From 1940 on, led movement for independence of India's Muslims in separate state of Pakistan, founded in 1947.
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly. During World War I, in exchange for promises to give French citizenship to Senegalese, he helped recruit Africans to serve in the French army. After war, led movement to abolish forced labor in Africa.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality. Though banned and leaders jailed, helped bring majority rule to South Africa.
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1930-1974) and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion of his country in 1935 and regained his throne during World War II, when British forces expelled the Italians. He ruled Ethiopia as an autocrat until overthrown in 1974.
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. Assassinated 1923. (819)
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820
Argentine politician, president of Argentina from 1916-1922 and 1928-1930. The first president elected by universal male suffrage, he began his presidency as a reformer, but later became conservative. leader of the radical party
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization and helped urban poor but did little to alleviate problems of peasants.
An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. Proved successful for time but couldn't keep up with technological advances in Europe and NorthAmerica.
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Per?n, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor, but harmed economy.
Eva Duarte Peron
Wife of Juan Peron and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits.
Churchill's term for Cold War division between Soviet-dominated East and United States - dominated West.
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. Came to end when Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organization formed in 1949 as military alliance of with European and North American States against Soviet Union and its eastern European allies.
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (p. 836)
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (p. 834)
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of western Europe after World War 2. 1961- over $20 billion in economic aid had been dispersed.
An economic organization established in 1957 to reduce tariff barriers and promote trade among the countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Italy, and West Germany. These countries became the original members of the European Community in 1965.
foreign policy initiated by US president Harry Truman 1947, offered military aid to help Turkey and Greece resist Soviet military pressure and subversion.
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South Vietnamese communist guerrillas against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States. (p. 838)
Cuban missile crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War. (p. 846)
Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War. (p. 846)
cultural revolution (China)
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Formed in 1960 by oil-producing states to promote their collective interest in generating revenue from oil.
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