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Terms in this set (50)
The mental processing of images, concepts, words, rules, and symbols is defined as
In the dictionary, Mark finds the definition of the word "liberal" includes the words "broad-minded," "moderate," and "tolerant." This definition represents this concept's ___________ meaning.
Although Mark looked in the dictionary for the definition of the word "liberal," he still would find it offensive if someone referred to him as "liberal." Thus, Mark's negative view of "liberal" represents this concept's __________ meaning at least for Mark.
A sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes the solution obvious is called
One of the most important barriers to problem-solving that involves the tendency to get "hung up" on wrong solutions or become blind to alternatives is called
Seeing the world without preconceptions tends to lead to
more creativity and better solutions.
If you have ever been without a screwdriver and took a dime out of your pocket and used it to loosen a screw, then you did not let which of the following be a barrier to your thinking?
Your professor asks a general question of the class, and although you think you might know the answer, you do not raise your hand to answer because you are afraid that if you are wrong, the other students might laugh at you. You are experiencing which barrier to problem-solving?
Because psychology students tend to define "negative" as "bad," students often incorrectly define "negative reinforcement" as a punishment. This illustrates which barrier to problem-solving?
cultural or learned
Thinking directed toward the discovery of a single established correct answer is known as __________ thinking.
Thinking in which many possibilities are developed from one starting place is called __________ thinking.
Which of the following types of thought may contribute to creative problem-solving, but can also lead to irrational, thinking errors?
The tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match pre-existing mental categories is referred to as the
Decision-making often can be influenced by the way that a problem is stated or structured, which is referred to as
Because individuals can perform poorly in some areas and be exceptional in other areas, psychologists are
looking at broader definitions of intelligence. Or. finding better ways to measure the g-factor
Alfred Binet is BEST known for
developing the first useful individual test of intelligence
The items that he included on his test were based on the
tasks that an average child could perform at each age level.
The g-factor refers to
general mental abilities.
Which of the following is an individual adult IQ test that measures verbal comprehension (similarities, vocabulary, information); perceptual reasoning (block design, matrix reasoning, visual puzzles); working memory (digit span and arithmetic); and processing speed (symbol search and coding)?
Today is Emil's birthday, and he is seven years old. Thus, seven would be Emil's
The average mental ability that a person displays at a given age is known as his or her
Average intelligence is usually defined as any score from
90 to 109.
The distribution of IQ scores
is approximately a normal or bell-shaped curve.
The main technique for estimating how much heredity and the environment affect intelligence involves the use of
As the degree of genetic similarity increases, the correlation between IQ scores
Motivation and emotion are both derived from the Latin word movere, which means
Motivation is defined as
internal mechanisms which initiate, maintain, direct, and terminate behavior.
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the motivational process?
need - drive - response - goal attainment
When you feel hunger or thirst, each of these psychological states would be classified as which element of motivation?
It is not uncommon for older people to suffer from dehydration despite experiencing a lack of thirst, meaning they have
a need but not a drive.
Needs for curiosity and exploration would be classified as __________ motives.
The needs for power, affiliation, approval, status, and security are classified as __________ motives.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, which of the following would have to be satisfied BEFORE a person would show interest in satisfying love and belonging needs?
physiological needs and safety needs
Maslow called the full use of personal potential
Jasmine enjoys cooking and dreams of opening her own restaurant, while Jacob cooks at a local restaurant and dreams of the day he can save enough money to quit his job and go back to college. Regarding cooking,
Jasmine is exhibiting intrinsic motivation, while Jacob is exhibiting extrinsic motivation.
Which part of the brain regulates many motives, including hunger, thirst, and the sex drive?
The most critical physiological factor controlling hunger is the
level of blood sugar.
If the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat's hypothalamus is destroyed, the rat will
eat until it becomes obese
If you eat more when food is highly visible and plentiful, then you are being influenced by
external eating cues
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
Persons with anorexia lose their appetite through this excessive dieting.
The causes of anorexia and bulimia include
a. exaggerated fears of becoming fat.
b. overestimation of body size.
c. harmful messages in the media.
All of them
A drive that is relatively independent of physical deprivation cycles or bodily need states (like sex) is referred to as
. The three components of emotions are emotional expressions, emotional feelings, and
People are usually most familiar with which element of emotion?
Which nervous system is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches?
Which of the following best describes the relationship of the parasympathetic to the sympathetic nervous system?
The parasympathetic system reverses the responses stimulated by the sympathetic system.
The use of lie detectors to screen job applicants and check the honesty of employees is questionable because
a. it is a serious invasion of privacy.
b. it cannot discriminate between different emotions, such as lying and anxiety.
c. its accuracy is doubtful.
all of these occur.
To minimize the effects of nervousness during testing, skilled polygraph examiners use a series of multiple choice in which one of the answers is correct. An innocent examinee should show the same polygraph response to all the answers, while a guilty person will show an elevated response to the correct answer. This multiple choice format used in polygraph testing is known as the __________test.
Which of the following receives sensory information directly and quickly, bypassing the cortex and allowing persons to respond to potential danger before they really know what is happening?
After night class, you are walking back to your car when you catch a glimpse of someone running up behind you. You quickly turn and brace for a possible attack, but the student runs on by. It is only after you reacted to the possible attack that you realized that you felt afraid. Reacting before experiencing the feeling is BEST explained by which theory of emotion?
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