Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
A&P UTA EXAM 4
Terms in this set (143)
Which tracts connect the cerebellum to the brain stem? Where are they located?
Cerebral peduncles / Pons
How do the lateral ventricles "communicate" with the third ventricle?
What is the thin partition that separates the 1st and 2nd ventricles?
What is the neural cortex found on the surface of?
What do the cerebellum and pons develop from?
Which layer of meninges closely follow the gyrus and sulcus?
What is the name of the dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres?
Where are the dural sinuses located?
How does cerebrospinal fluid enter the subarachnoid space?
absorbed through blood vessels *
After the cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed at the arachnoid granulations, where does it return to?
circulates to the superior sagittal sinus
What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
- provide cushion
- provide buoyant support
- act as transport medium for nutrients
- acts as transport medium for waste products
Which cells secrete cerebrospinal fluid?
Where is the respiratory rhythmicity center located?
Where are the nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus located? What type of info do they send? What structure do they send information to?
- located in the medulla oblongata
- relay somatic sensory info to the thalamus
Where does the medulla oblongata relay auditory info to?
What does the white matter of the cerebellum form?
What are the the cerebral hemispheres separated by?
Which structure oversees postural muscles, balance, and equilibrium?
What structure relays auditory information to the auditory cortex?
medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus - located in diencephalon
Where do the optic tracts carrying information from the retina go?
What are the nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon called?
What regions of the mesencephalon issues subconscious motor commands affect upper limb position and background muscle tone?
What structure receives visual input from the lateral geniculates?
superior colliculus / retina
What part of the brain controls thirst, hunger, and could cause mood swings?
What tract of white matter connects the hippocampus with the hypothalamus?
What structure is important in the storage and recall of long term memories?
What are the components of the limbic system?
- amygdaloid body
- cingulate gyrus
* NOT: globulus pallidus
What lobe of the brain would control motor movements to the arm?
left frontal lobe
What are the function of the basal nuclei?
provide general pattern and rhythm for walking
What is the corpus callosum composed of?
Where is the auditory cortex located? The visual cortex?
Auditory - temporal
Visual - occipital
What cortex does the surface of the post-central gyrus contain?
Primary sensory cortex
The primary motor cortex is the surface of what structure?
How does gustatory information reach the brain?
cranial nerve XI - accessory nerve
Which cranial nerve affects tongue movements?
Which nerve controls sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums?
mandibular branch of the trigeminal
Which nerve has 3 major branches?
Which nerve controls the eyelids and could cause double vision if damage?
Which reflex would be affected if the superior colliculi was damaged?
Which nuclei control the reflex of moving our heads toward a loud noise?
What would damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe do?
Play the piano
What would damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex affect?
voluntary motor activity
What is central adaptation?
Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway
What are general senses?
temperature, touch, vibration, pain
how does sensing a location of a stimulus work?
Depends on specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated
What is a labeled line?
link between peripheral receptor and cortical neuron
How does peripheral adaptation work?
decreases the number of action potential that reach the CNS.
Where are chemoreceptors located?
carotid bodies, aortic bodies, organs of taste, organs of smell (NOT: skin)
What are the properties of thermoreceptors?
ALL ARE CORRECT
- found within dermis
- free nerve endings
- "cold" distinguish "warm"
- more numerous for cold
Which receptor is a fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface?
root hair plexus
Which receptor is highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes that make contact with the stratum germinatavum?
tactile (Merkel) disc
Which receptor is fast-adapting and sensitive to deep pressure composed of a single dendrite?
Which receptor is a tactile receptor sensitive to pressure and distortion of the skin composed of capsules?
What are the mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure?
Which receptors monitor the position of joints?
What receptor is a fast-adapting mechanoreceptor in the dermis that responds to fine touch, pressure, and low-frequency vibration?
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
How do endorphins reduce perception of sensations?
What spinal tract relays information concerning crude tough and pressure to the CNS?
What spinal tract relays info concerning pain and temperature to the CNS?
What spinal tract carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS that does not reach our awareness?
Which ascending tract carried sensations for fine touch and vibration?
posterior (dorsal) column
What are thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex called?
What is the afferent sensory neuron that carries sensation to the CNS called?
How is it that we can localize sensation that originate in different areas of the body?
Sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions
Which descending tract controls facial movement?
Which tracts do the axons that decussate between the pyramids of the medulla oblongata belong to?
How is the area of of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body proportioned?
number of motor units in that region
What is the function of pyramidal system?
voluntary motor activity
Which tract includes the medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of the head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli?
Which spinal tract unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone?
vestibulospinal; medial pathway
What does the cerebellum adjust motor activity in response to?
- visual info
- equilibrium related sensations
- input from motor cortex
- input from proprioceptors
(NOT: touch sensations)
What is the function of basal nuclei?
- provide background
- patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities
After pre-ganglionic fibers leave the CNS, where do they synapse?
What is a visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS called?
What is the function of autonomic efferents?
What are the characteristics of post-ganglionic axons?
What happens to the body during sympathetic activation?
elevated heart rate, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, sweating
What do pre-ganglionic fibers that innervate that collateral ganglia form?
Which cavity do collateral ganglia innervate?
What are the sympathetic nerves comprised of? Splanchnic nerves?
Sympathetic - contain short pre fibers and longer post fibers
Splanchnic - pre-ganglionic fibers that inervate viscera or internal organs
Where does 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travel?
How does sympathetic innervation enter the urinary bladder? (which ganglion)
Where do post-ganglionic fibers that innervates targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate?
sympathetic chain ganglia
What are clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region? (which ganglia?)
What is the function of ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland?
- release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream
- secrete epinepherine and norepinepherne
What nerves innervate the intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs?
What happens when alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are stimulated by norepinephrine?
What happens when beta receptors on heart muscle cells are stimulated?
increased heart rate and force of contraction
Which division has post-ganglionic axons that only uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter - parasympathetic or sympathetic?
What are the functions of parasympathetic division?
- decrease rate of cardiac contraction
- constriction of pupils
- simulation of pupils
Which division have ganglia near or within the end organ, parasympathetic or sympathetic?
Which nerve provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
What is the function of nicotinic receptors? How do they function?
open chemically gated sodium ion channels; excitation of neuron, entry of sodium ions, depolarization
What happens when nicotinic receptors are exposed to acetylcholine?
excitation of neuron, entry of sodium ions, depolarization
if a drug slows (decreases) the heart rate, what receptor is it binding to?
What is the function of muscarinic receptors?
- activated by acetylcholine
- occur at cholinergic neuromuscular
- neuroglandular junctions in parasympathetic divisions
Which divisions speeds up the heart rate, sympathetic or parasympathetic?
Would a decrease in autonomic tone of smooth muscle in a blood vessel dilate or constrict the vessel?
increase blood flow - dilate vessel
Why is autonomic tone an important aspect for the ANS?
allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing range of control options
Which division controls the diameter of the respiratory passages, parasympathetic, sympathetic or both?
What is the conversion of a short-term memory to long term called?
What is essential for memory consolidation?
- amygdaloid body
Which visceral reflexes does the medulla oblongata coordinate?
swallowing, vasomotor, coughing, cardioacceletory
Which part of the brain receives olfactory information?
Where do olfactory receptor axons synapse?
olfactory bulbs or cerebrum
Which special senses can replace damage neural receptors?
What comprises the epithelial projections on the tongue?
What section of the tongue has the largest number of taste buds?
lingual papillae - circumvallate papillae
What taste sensation is triggered by glutamate?
What are the 6 primary taste sensations?
sweet, salty, sour, bitter, unami, water
What is the transparent portion of the fibrous tunic called?
What covers most of the exposed surface of the eye?
What is the vitreous body? What is its function?
helps to stabilize the eye and holds the retina up against the eyewall
What structure produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the eyelids from sticking together?
What structure contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit in the ye?
medial cantus - lacrimal caruncle
What is the gelatinous materials that gives the eyeball its basic shape?
What happens the ciliary muscle contracts?
- adjust shape of lens for near vision
- ciliary body moves forward
- apply less tension
- suspends ligament loose
- lens round
In the eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through what structure?
What is the space between the iris, ciliary body and lens called?
What is the space between the cornea and the iris called?
What is the opening in the iris that light passes through called?
What part of the eye determines eye color?
What area of the retina contains only cones?
What are the three different types of cones? how are they different?
red, green, blue - sensitive to different light energies
What pigment is synthesized from Vitamin A?
Visual pigments are derivatives of which compound?
What can we see when all 3 cone populations are stimulated equally?
Describe the structure of a photoreceptor
in retina - outermost layer of cells closes to pigmented layers
Describe how focal distance works
the closer the light source the longer the focal distance.
rounder distance - shorter focal distance
What happens to the eye when there is a sudden rise in brightness in the room?
contraction of the sphincter pupillary muscles
What does 20/15 vision mean?
objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eyesight can see at 15
what is the light-adapted sight?
photoreceptors are much less sensitive to stimulation
What structure supports the organ of Corti?
What structure overlies the organ of Corti?
How does the middle ear communicate with the nasopharynx?
auditory tube or eustachian tube
How are vibrations transferred from the tympanic membrane to the oval window?
What ganglion do the cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form?
What does frequency of sound depend on?
Which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
How are sound waves converted into mechanical movements?
Where are the hair cells of the utricle and saccule clustered?
How does endolymph move through the semicircular canals? What is the result?
moves with the body - signals rotational movements
Where are sensory receptors of the semicircular canals located?
What happens when an external force bends the stereocilia of inner ear hair cells?
Change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells
Sets with similar terms
Med Surg 1 Chapter 65 Assessment of Neur…
MAP Chapter 14
Sets found in the same folder
Final Exam A&P 2 Ch 18-29
Exam 3 - Ch. 24-26
Psychology 203 Quiz 3
Exam 1-UTA anatomy
Other sets by this creator
History 1302 Exam 1
UTA Intro to Nursing Exam 1
Muscles on body and head- Anatomy
anatomy test one - muscles
Other Quizlet sets
Pummill Vocabulary Lesson 1
microbiology chapter 14
Signaltransduktion und Expressionskontrolle in Pfl…