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endocrine glands

secrete hormones into the blood which effect specific target organ; pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testicles


effected by neurohumor, nerve, feedback, nonnormonal organic substances, inorganic substance, biorhythms

endocrine problems

hypersecretion, hyposecretion, failure to stop or start secreting

preexisting conditions

pituitary tumors, radiation therapy of the head and neck, autoimmune disease, neurosurgical procedures

pituitary gland

master gland of the body-hypophysis; controlled by hypothalamus; hormones act as chemical messengers to other endocrine glands; few hormones have direct action; several lobes produce different hormones

thyroid stimulation hormone

secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid growth and secretion

adrenalcorticotropic hormone

secreted by pituitary gland; smulates adrenocortical growth and secretion

somatotropin/growth hormone

secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates protein biosynthesis, bone and muscle growth

lutenizing or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

sectreted by pitutiary gland; stimulates ovulation and lutenization over ovary follicle/ testosterone production

follicle-stimulating hormone

secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates ovarian follicle growth and estrogen secretion/spermatogenesis


secreted by pituitary gland; stimlate mammory gland development/milk secretion

antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin

secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates water retention and vascular smooth muscles; stimulated by sympathetic NS and osmotic receptors in hypothalamus; high doses cause vasoconstriction


secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection

syndrome of inappropriate ADH

non-physiologic need for ADH; post operative, tumors/cancer producing ADH; signs of water retention from kidney


too much water retained; result of SIADH; confusion, muscle weakness

diabetes insipidus

insufficient ADH resultingin polyuria and polydypsia; high osmolarity; opposite of SIADH


ranges from complete absence of hormones to decrease of some hormones; manifestation is dwarfism


can cause giantism


suppresses normal gonads; women-galactorrhea and menstrual disturbance; men-loss of libido and erectile dysfunction

signs of thyroid hypofunction

weight gain, growth retardation, emotionally subdued, expressionless, slow speech and mental processes, thick skin/thin hair, sensitive to depressants, can be postpartum

signs of hyperthyroidism

weight loss, high basic temp, expothalamus, increased appetite, enlarge gland (goiter), nervousness, palpitations, tachycardia, flushed and perspiration


grave's disease, toxic multinodular goiter, thyroid crisis, excess TSH stimulation, thyroiditis

thyroid storm: thyrotoxic crisis

seen in patient's with grave's disease; bulging eyes, confused, distinguished from hyperthyroidism; precipitating factors

thyroid cancer

can cause hyper and post op hypo condition


high levels of hormone elevates calcium, low levels lowers calcium; can make body require medical intervention

parathyroid medication

hypercalcemia may be life threatening, admiistration of calcitonin and phosphorous may be needed; low levels of PRH=high phosphorous leves, muscle tetany; magnesium meds and decrease phosphorous levels

hypercalcemic crisis

malignancy associated hypercalcemia; primary hyperparathyroidism

hypocalcemic crisis

encounterd following surgery for hyperparathyroid tumors; treated with IV calcium while monitored

adrenal glands

on to of kidney; have a medulla and cortes that secrete different hormones

adrenal medulla

secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine also called catecholamines; stimulated by sym. NS;

adrenal cortex

secretes glucocorticoids-hydrocortisone (sugar), mineralocortoids-aldosterone (salt), androgens-sex hormones (mainly in men)

adrenal cortex-hyposecretion

addison's disease-dark pigmented skin; need replacement of hormones including aldosterone, hydrocortisone, and testosterine; may need to increase Na intake

signs of adrenal crisis

cortisol deficiency, hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, decreased gastric mobility and vascular tone

adrenal cortex-hypersecretion

cushing's syndrome; hyperplasia of cortex; cortisone/androgens; may be caused by overmedication with exogenous sources of hormones; weakness, loss libido, moon face, oily skin

aldosterone deficiency w/adrenal crisis

hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, elevated BUN


influence glucose metabolism; stimulated by ACTH; anti inflammatory response and suppresses allergic reactions; elevates blood sugar

exogenous glucocorticoids

used as anti-inflammatory (arthritis) and immunosuppressant (lupus); too much or long term causea drenal atrophy, high blood sugars, masks infections, inhibits healing, contributes to osteoporosis and peptic ulcers, growth retardation, infertility due to feedback to pituitary


aldosterone; influenc electrolytes and metabolism, cause sodium retention and K excretion; secreted in response to angiotensin II or elevated K levels;


comination of bludo and mineralocort

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