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39 terms

endocrine pathology

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endocrine glands
secrete hormones into the blood which effect specific target organ; pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testicles
endocrinology
effected by neurohumor, nerve, feedback, nonnormonal organic substances, inorganic substance, biorhythms
endocrine problems
hypersecretion, hyposecretion, failure to stop or start secreting
preexisting conditions
pituitary tumors, radiation therapy of the head and neck, autoimmune disease, neurosurgical procedures
pituitary gland
master gland of the body-hypophysis; controlled by hypothalamus; hormones act as chemical messengers to other endocrine glands; few hormones have direct action; several lobes produce different hormones
thyroid stimulation hormone
secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid growth and secretion
adrenalcorticotropic hormone
secreted by pituitary gland; smulates adrenocortical growth and secretion
somatotropin/growth hormone
secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates protein biosynthesis, bone and muscle growth
lutenizing or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
sectreted by pitutiary gland; stimulates ovulation and lutenization over ovary follicle/ testosterone production
follicle-stimulating hormone
secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates ovarian follicle growth and estrogen secretion/spermatogenesis
prolactin
secreted by pituitary gland; stimlate mammory gland development/milk secretion
antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin
secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates water retention and vascular smooth muscles; stimulated by sympathetic NS and osmotic receptors in hypothalamus; high doses cause vasoconstriction
oxytocin
secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection
syndrome of inappropriate ADH
non-physiologic need for ADH; post operative, tumors/cancer producing ADH; signs of water retention from kidney
hyponatremia
too much water retained; result of SIADH; confusion, muscle weakness
diabetes insipidus
insufficient ADH resultingin polyuria and polydypsia; high osmolarity; opposite of SIADH
hypopituitary
ranges from complete absence of hormones to decrease of some hormones; manifestation is dwarfism
hyperpituitary
can cause giantism
prolactinoma
suppresses normal gonads; women-galactorrhea and menstrual disturbance; men-loss of libido and erectile dysfunction
signs of thyroid hypofunction
weight gain, growth retardation, emotionally subdued, expressionless, slow speech and mental processes, thick skin/thin hair, sensitive to depressants, can be postpartum
signs of hyperthyroidism
weight loss, high basic temp, expothalamus, increased appetite, enlarge gland (goiter), nervousness, palpitations, tachycardia, flushed and perspiration
hyperthyroidism
grave's disease, toxic multinodular goiter, thyroid crisis, excess TSH stimulation, thyroiditis
thyroid storm: thyrotoxic crisis
seen in patient's with grave's disease; bulging eyes, confused, distinguished from hyperthyroidism; precipitating factors
thyroid cancer
can cause hyper and post op hypo condition
parathyroid
high levels of hormone elevates calcium, low levels lowers calcium; can make body require medical intervention
parathyroid medication
hypercalcemia may be life threatening, admiistration of calcitonin and phosphorous may be needed; low levels of PRH=high phosphorous leves, muscle tetany; magnesium meds and decrease phosphorous levels
hypercalcemic crisis
malignancy associated hypercalcemia; primary hyperparathyroidism
hypocalcemic crisis
encounterd following surgery for hyperparathyroid tumors; treated with IV calcium while monitored
adrenal glands
on to of kidney; have a medulla and cortes that secrete different hormones
adrenal medulla
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine also called catecholamines; stimulated by sym. NS;
adrenal cortex
secretes glucocorticoids-hydrocortisone (sugar), mineralocortoids-aldosterone (salt), androgens-sex hormones (mainly in men)
adrenal cortex-hyposecretion
addison's disease-dark pigmented skin; need replacement of hormones including aldosterone, hydrocortisone, and testosterine; may need to increase Na intake
signs of adrenal crisis
cortisol deficiency, hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, decreased gastric mobility and vascular tone
adrenal cortex-hypersecretion
cushing's syndrome; hyperplasia of cortex; cortisone/androgens; may be caused by overmedication with exogenous sources of hormones; weakness, loss libido, moon face, oily skin
aldosterone deficiency w/adrenal crisis
hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, elevated BUN
glucocorticoids
influence glucose metabolism; stimulated by ACTH; anti inflammatory response and suppresses allergic reactions; elevates blood sugar
exogenous glucocorticoids
used as anti-inflammatory (arthritis) and immunosuppressant (lupus); too much or long term causea drenal atrophy, high blood sugars, masks infections, inhibits healing, contributes to osteoporosis and peptic ulcers, growth retardation, infertility due to feedback to pituitary
mineralocorticoids
aldosterone; influenc electrolytes and metabolism, cause sodium retention and K excretion; secreted in response to angiotensin II or elevated K levels;
florinef
comination of bludo and mineralocort