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Biology vocabulary unit two
Terms in this set (29)
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller molecules: A protein, carbohydrates, or nucleic acid
An attraction between molecules of different substances
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
non polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
the amount of acidity in a substance
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between Atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative Atoms, making it slightly negative and the other Atoms slightly positive.
A chemical process in which two molecules become conveniently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Also called condensation.
A molecule containing polar covalent bonds.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical molecule units (monomers) linked together.
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, consisting of a dissolving agent, called the solvent, and a substance that is dissolved, called the solute
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
The part of an enzyme where a substrate molecules attaches (by the means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzymes surface
A substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, and non competitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions
member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single monomer sugars, to monomer sugars, and other multiunit sugars
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular structures and activities. The two types of nucleic acid's are DNA and RNA
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding the enzymes active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzymes substrate.
an ending material in a chemical reaction
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can because by changes in pH or salt concentration or buy high temperature. Also refers to the separation of two strands of the DNA double helix caused by similar factors.
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure
A protein or RNA molecule that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process
(1) A specific substance or reactant on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only to specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives
A method of metabolic control in which a product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme induced by the entry of the substrate so that it binds more snuggly to the substrate
An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar convalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic. Lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroids and are insoluble in water.
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