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Chapter 19 Flashcards

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The Confederate States
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
The Border States
Delaware, Missouri, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Robert E Lee
Commander of the Confederate Army
Thomas Jackson
he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of Chancellorsville his own men mortally wounded him.
Bull Run
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
Irvin McDowell
Union general at the First Battle of the Bull Run
George McClellan
2nd Commander of the Union Army, defeated Lee at Antietam, but refused to pursue him and finish the battle. Fired by Lincoln, became the Northern Democratic candidate for President in the election of 1864.
Ambrose Burnside
General who replaced McClellan. He resigned his command voluntarily after his failure at the battle of Fredericksburg
Antietam
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
The Army of the Potomac
the official name of the union army
The Army of northern Virginia
Lee's army
Cotton Diplomacy
Confederate efforts to use the importance of southern cotton to Britain's textile industry to persuade the British to support the Confederacy in the Civil War
The Anaconda Plan
Final Northern plan to end the War by Capturing Richmond, Blockading Southern ports and splitting the South by taking the Mississippi River
Joseph Hooker
United States general in the Union Army who was defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E. Lee (1814-1879)
Fredericksburg
Ambrose Burnside (replacement for McClellan) led the Union toward Richmond and marched into waiting Confederate troops who shot them down as they marched. Horrible defeat for the Union.
Chancellorsville
a major battle in the American Civil War (1863), the Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker. General Jackson was killed by friendly fire.
Ironclads
Wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War. Beginning of new weapons.
The Monitor
first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy; she is most famous for her participation in the first-ever naval battle between two ironclad warships, the Battle of Hampton Roads on 9 March 1862
The Merrimack
A former wooden U.S. warship renamed the Virginia . It was remodeled by the Confederates and was threatening to the Yankee blockading fleet. It was plated with metal armor. It was a great threat to the Northern blockades because it had the ability to crush through the wooden ships.
Fort Henry
Fort Henry was Grant's first military success. The fort lay on the Tennessee River.
Fort Donelson
Grant captured this fort on the Cumberland and because of the capture, all of Kentucky and most of western Tennessee came under Union control.
Shiloh
One of the first major battles of the Civil War, in April, 1862 near Shiloh, Tennessee. Union forces resting under the command of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant were first attacked by Confederates and were forced to retreat, but they later gained the lost ground and forced the Confederate army to retreat to Mississippi. There were more than 23, 000 casualties on both sides.
U.S. Grant
Union General; Captured Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson, won battle of Shiloh, laid siege at Vicksburg and captured it, won battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga; In March 1864, he was given Supreme Command of all Union Armies; first general other than Washington to receive a 5-star general ranking; laid siege to Petersburg, VA; Grant captures; Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomatox Court House
Vicksburg
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
David Farragat
April 25, 1862, captured New Orleans so Union almost had compete control of the Miss. River
Memphis
Its capture by Union gunboats after the fall of New Orleans stops the south from using the Mississippi River to transport troops or supplies.
Gettysburg
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
The Gettysburg Address
a speech given by President Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg, "4 score and 7 years". Basically reminded people of the beginning of America as a free nation, praised the men who had died in the struggle, and assured people that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Total War
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
Phillip Sheridan
was a Union general in the Civil War. He quickly rose to major general and headed the Army of the Potomac and was in close relations with Ulysses S. Grant. He is very famous for defeating Confederate forces at Shenandoah Valley in 1864 where he was one of the first to use "scorched earth" tactics during the war. His cavalry pursued Robert E. Lee and was very important in the Confederates surrender at Appomattox.
Cold Harbor
Fought during the American Civil War from June 1 to June 3, 1864, near Cold Harbor, Virginia, it culminated in the slaughter of more than 13,000 Union soldiers attempting to advance to the Confederate entrenchment. The Confederates lost fewer than 2,000 men, and even they were shocked by the carnage caused by the folly of the Union commanders.
The Wilderness
Date: May 5-30, 1863 in Virginia. Leaders: Union - Grant, Meade. Conf. - Lee, Longstreet. Grant attacks Lee outside Chancellorsville. Soldiers had to fight using sound, not sight. Grant launched a massive attack against the entrenched Confederates. 7,000 men were killed in eight minutes. Significance: J.E.B Stuart dies. Lee loses 46% of his men and is unable to replace them. Grant continues to push towards Richmond.
Spotsylvania
a battle between the armies of Grant and Lee during the Wilderness Campaign
Petersburg
This railroad junction south of Richmond was the site of a 10 month standoff between Lee's and Grant's troops. The Union tried to defeat the Confederacy with explosives at the Battle of the Crater, but the plan backfired. The Union eventually broke through the Confederate line, sending Lee on the run and allowing the Union to capture the city and Richmond in April of 1865.
Richmond
served as the capital of the Confederate States of America during the vast majority of the American Civil War. It was the target of numerous attempts by the United States Army to seize possession of the capital, finally falling to the Federals in April 1865. Not only was it the seat of political power for the Confederacy, it served as an important source of munitions, armament, weapons, supplies, and manpower for the Confederate States Army.
Joshua Chamberlain
A gallant Union commander of the 20th Maine,
he achieved fame during the Battle of
Gettysburg for his defense of
Little Round Top
Appomattox Courthouse
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
The seven Days Battles
A series of battles where Lee attacked the Union army forcing them to retreat from near Richmond.
The Election of 1864
Lincoln and running mate Johnson ran on the platform of unconditional surrender for the republicans. McClellan ran on the platform of conditional surrender for the democrats. Lincoln won this election with 55% of the vote this was a crucial election because the outcome determined the south's last chance for survival. Lincoln believed that he was going to lose this election although the Union was finally winning. In Lincolns 2nd Inaugrial address he talked about peace and the end of the war.
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address
Lincoln urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders and their supporters and military after the war. Instead, he urged reconstruction of the South "with malice toward none; with charity for all."