ecology test review
Terms in this set (40)
all of the living components of an environment (ex: animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria)
all the non-living components of an environment (ex: soil, climate, temperature, light, water)
organisms that can be interbreed and produce fertile offspring
individuals of the same species that live in the same area and share a gene pool
all the populations of different species living in the same environment (ex. = all the animals and plants in a field).
the community of organisms in an area plus the abiotic (non-living) factors (ex. = all the living things in a field plus the soil type, rainfall, light, amount of water, etc.).
a major region of the earth having similar temperature ranges, rainfall, sunlight, and types of organisms.
ex. = tundra, taiga (coniferous forest), temperate deciduous forests, grasslands, desert, chaparral, tropical rain forest
all the living and nonliving portions of the earth that sustain life
# of individuals per area
# of individuals entering a population
# of individuals leaving a population
maximum number of individuals of a population that an environment can support
doubling of a population every generation (when resources [food, space, light, no predators, etc.] are unlimited)
S-shaped growth curve resulting from limiting factors affecting the ideal exponential growth of populations
how do we increase a population?
how do we decrease a population?
factors that limit population growth as the population increases in size (ex. = crowding, food availability, space, competition, predators)
factors that affect populations regardless of the size of the populations (ex. = weather, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, natural disasters, etc.)
how an organism makes it's living. It's way of life.
where an organism lives
different species interact over a long period of time and change and adjust to one another (ex = plants & pollinators).
individuals of different species living closely together
what are the three types of symbiosis?
parasitism = one species benefits, one species is harmed
commensalism = one species benefits, one species is unaffected.
mutualism = both species benefit in the symbiotic relationship
a harmless species looking like a dangerous species; or, a species looking like part of it's environment.
What is the principle of Competitive Exclusion?
The principle that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time. One will succeed and the other species must either adapt, migrate, or die.
What is Resource Partitioning?
the sharing of a resource by multiple species by using the resource in slightly different way
What is Succession?
natural, orderly change in a community in an environment over time, eventually reaching the climax community
The Climax Community is a?
stable, mature community that undergoes little succession
What are Trophic levels?
each step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem
the flow of food and energy from organism to another.
all the interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
the amount of food produced per time interval by the producers in an ecosystem
any factor in an environment that limits the size of a population
organisms that make the food by photosynthesis in an ecosystem
organisms that must eat other organisms in an ecosystem
What are the different types of consumers that we have?
carnivores, herbivore, omnivore
dead and decaying organic material
What are the 6 major impacts humans have on the environment?
Biological Magnification, Eutrophication, Acid Rain, Deforestation, Greenhouse Effect, Loss of Ozone Layer