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World History 2 Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (60)
The Afro-Eurasian Trade Network was a system of trade routes that stretched across land and water from China throughout the Middle East and ending in either Africa or Europe. The network ultimately was derived from the Silk Road, with most merchants traveling the harsh routes to attempt to gather precious resources from China or India who were both abundant in resources and powerful. This system opened up communication for ideas, religion, and goods, allowing the spread of religions such as Islam and allowing nobility in the west to receive goods such as silk.
Why did West Africa become a center of trade before the 1400's?
gold mining & trading, Mansa Musa (king), metal & iron cities
How did the rising power of West African Kingdoms reflect in cultural practices?
Islam was a connective force
Who were the Mongols?
Nomadic horse-people from the eastern steppe of Asia that created the largest empire in the history of the world.
How did the Mongols encourage trade?
made trade routes safer, encourage sea trade
What cultural and intellectual projects flourished under the Mongol rule?
New written language, Theater, Painting, Mongol Rituals
Explain the spread of the Islam religion
Mainly through merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries
What does Abraham Cresques map of the world tell us?
It tells us his view of the world and how he views Europe as the center of the world.
What is the Black Death?
A plague that wiped out 1/3 to 2/3 of the European population. Arguable the deadliest pandemic.
Who were the Ottomans?
Followers of Osman Gazi.
What is the Ottoman Empire?
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish multinational state that lasted from 1299 to 1923 that incorporated several ethnic groups including the Armenians.
How did the ottomans consolidate power?
through trade and conquest
What strategies did the ottomans use to rule?
military/ army is one of the main ways
Who were the Ming?
A Chinese dynasty, from 1368-1644. They displaced the Mongol-lead Yuan dynasty.
How did the Ming consolidate power?
What strategies did the Ming use to rule?
The Ming Code
Who were the European rulers during the rebuilding after the plague?
How did these European rulers consolidate power?
What strategies did these European rulers use?
ties to Christianity or religion?
What was the Renaissance?
The rebirth of interest in learning and the arts.
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Renaissance thinkers were interested in the learning and art of ancient Rome. Italy was also the center of the Roman Empire and was very wealthy & powerful.
What were the major elements of the Renaissance?
humanism classicism and statecraft
tells of how some people allow fortune to control their lives, instead of shaping the world to what they want it to be
Why did Europeans search for new routes to Asia?
They wanted to directly trade with Africa and Asia
What drives European Exploration?
God, Gold and Glory
Early Portuguese and Spanish Exploration
MOST IMPORTANT: these 2 were the MAJOR EXPLORERS IN EUROPE AT THE TIME
Spanish Exploration of New World- Christopher Columbus and Juan Ponce de Leon; colonized south, north and central America
Portuguese Exploration of the New World-During the 15th century the searched for a shorter route to Asia; this exploration helped to make maps better
What kind of empire was the Aztec Empire?
located in Mexico... (city state I believe)
What kind of empire was the Inca Empire?
located in South America
What kind of method did the Spanish use for colonization?
Influenced countries with Catholicism
Why were the Spanish successful at colonizing?
According to the Inca Account of the Conquest of Peru, Spaniards were forceful and also manipulative. They made it easy for leaders to trust them.
How did the pre existing Indigenous empires respond to the arrival and conquest of the Spanish?
They thought the Spaniards were quite peculiar. An example would be their use of guns and letters. The Indigenous people were also naïve to the things that could be done to them by the Spanish.
Bernal Diaz del Castillo Reading
Worlds Together Worlds Apart- looked at Aztecs with disgust and prejudice
Titu Cusi Yupanqui Reading (What was his reasoning/goal?)
tells of how naïve Incans were, his fathers death, and the cruelty and manipulation done by The Spaniards
How are Europe, Americas and Africa linked in wake of European expansion?
Network of trade that included goods, wealth and slaves (The Atlantic System)
What were the effects of Europe, Americas and Africa interlinking?
Economic gain for countries involved
The Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
What is mercantilism and its link to colonialism?
A system based on the benefits of profitable trading. The Mother country made trade policies that favored to the mother country to the expense of colonies.
How did the transatlantic slave trade begin?
Europeans needed workers for their plantations and turned to West Africa, slavery then became huge in Portuguese and Spain
How did European merchants and African rulers interact?
They established trade with one another.
Why did Europeans embrace slavery?
They needed workers and having slaves was highly profitable since they didn't have to pay them.
Who benefited from the Trans-Atlantic slave trade and who did not?
Europeans, Africans and the people of the Americas, all benefitted from the slave trade the only people who did not benefit from it were the slaves.
What changes did this slave trade bring to African and New World Societies?
Arguably started racial hierarchies and created economic growth
How is the new plantation based economy constructed and maintained in the Americas?
Economy is agriculturally based and most crops are grew in hotter climate areas.
How do enslaved Africans resist dehumanizing conditions?
What new cultures formed in the Americas as a result of colonialism?
When a series of famines struck China during the early seventeenth century, the government was unable to organized effective relief efforts.
How does the influx of silver affect China's economy?
China's economy relied too heavily on silver.
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times they also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last emperor of this dynasty was overthrown in 1911 by nationalists.
How do the Qing establish their control after the collapse of the Ming?
Control trade amongst merchants.
items bought and sold around the world through importations and exportations using the gold standard (world wide market)
How does Japan get consolidates into a single political entity?
heredity dynasty and military conquest
How do Asian rulers regulate trade and control the terms of economic interactions with Europeans?
Using The Canton Trade System (regulated china's trade with the west until 1839)
What challenges do the Ottomans face in the 17th century and how do they respond via reform?
Pecevi's History of the Coffeehouse Reading
mentions leaders at first negative view on coffee shops, also mentions how it changed social life
What are the theories underpinning the emergence of Absolute Monarchies?
Why do these Monarchies emerge when they do?
What strategies do absolute monarchs deploy?
What factors contributed to the emergence of the Enlightenment?
What are the main ideas and orientation of Enlightment thinkers?
How have historical understandings of the Enlightenment changed over time?
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