anthro chapters 8&9
Terms in this set (60)
research into understanding who we are as men and women- has become one of the most significant subfields of anthro (began by margaret mead- ex. of feminist anthropologist)
(from anthro viewpoint)- the observable physical differences between male and female, especially biological expressions related to human reproduction
composed of the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes
Things that determine biological sex
1. genitalia 2. gonads (testis and ovaries) and 3. chromosome patterns (XX vs. XY)
the phenotypic differences b/w males and females of the same species (Modest in humans)
cultural construction of gender
the ways humans learn to behave as a man or woman and to recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within their cultural context
Sports in US
enforces gender roles. ex. T-ball: coaches favored boys.
U.S. High School
C.J. pascoe enthrography "Dude, You're a Fag"- construction of masculinity in Cali. "fag" referred to someone acting not masculine. Girls can also have masculinity.
machismo in mexico
Gutmann- "the meanings of macho"- manliness/femininity depends on circumstances.
the way gender identity is expressed through action
Case Study: Caster Semenya
track runner- controversy over gender
individuals who have combination of male and female genetalia, gonads, chromosomes (Fausto Sterling- pg. 282)
American academy of pediatrics policy
"the birth of a child with ambiguous genitalia constitutes a social emergency"
a gender identity or performance does not fit with cultural norms related to one's assigned sex at birth
mother goddesses- usually born as men
berdache- two spirits
Native north armericans- transgender people who are said to have both male and female spirits
#3 priority of UN
create gender equality and empower women
1. 6/10 of the worlds poorest people are women/girls
2. 2/3 of all children unable to attend school are girls
3. women age 15-25 are being infected with AIDS three times faster than men in the same group
4. less than 16% of the worlds parliamentarians are women
association of women with nature and men with culture (290)
gender roles split between public and private spheres.
women= private or domestic sphere (disadvantage)
outlines how women actually have plenty of power in past cultures- reference
an unequal distribution of power and access to a groups resources, opportunities, rights, and privileges based on gender
widely held and powerful preconceived notion about the attributes of differences between and proper roles for men and women in a culture
a set of cultural ideas, usually stereotypical,about the essential character of different gender that functions to promote and justify gender stratification
fairy tale of egg and sperm. sperm is perceived at aggressive when in reality it moves weakly. supports gender stereotypes.
Man the Hunter, Women the Gatherer
men= larger and stronger. developed in human evolution
forms of violence shaped by the gender identities of the people involved ex. verbal abuse, stalking, harassment
1 in 4 women experience this in their lifetime. 85% of all victims are women (between ages 20-24) often caused by witnessing from parents
Gender Violence on campus
structural gender violence
gendered societal patterns of unequal access to wealth, power, and basic resources such as food, shelter, and health care that differentially affect women in particular
Mothers of 'the disappeared" in El Salvador
co-madres-made up of women. first group to stand up against gvt. then ordered women be part of gvt. many were raped.
How globalization affected women labor
Mexico- females gained autonomy/ got better pay
Malaysia- invasive surveillance on women- loss of autonomy
Cuba, PR, and DR-effort varied based on class&culture
Barbados- work in airports etc. (cool air conditioning)-- pink collar workers (bottom of pg 303)
immigrant care workers
nannies, cleaning ladies, maids, or home health aides
complex range of desires, beliefs, and behaviors that are related to erotic physical contact and the cultural arena within which people debate about what kinds of physical desires an behaviors are right, appropriate, and natural
finds that among mammals, humans are the sexual outliers
humans have an evolutionary trajectory of loving. three phases of falling in love (finding the right partner, building a relationship, and forming an emotional attachment)
humans are unculturated from both to channel these feelings and desires into a limited number of acceptable expressions
Wekker in Suriname
mati- women form intimate spiritual, emotional, and sexual relationships with other women. culture allows sexuality to be malleable
Lancaster Machismo in Nicaragua
machismo- exaggerated masculinity. you're only gay if you take it, the 'penetrator' is still manly.
Herdt in Papua New Guinea
widely accepted- boys gave older men head to receive their sperm.
attraction to and having sexual relations with someone of the opposite sex
individuals of the same sex
lack of attraction to others
sought to understand the essence of human sexuality as it was expressed naturally thru sexual behavior
kinsey on sexuality
homo and hetero at other ends of spectrum. marked by fluidity, diversity, and flexibility. continuum of sexual behavior.
wedding studies. brides are made through culture.
wedding- produces unequal access & inequality
disadvantage women while being largely obscured by the idealism and romance
belief that married life (hetero) will be full of love purity morality and affluence
Lewin- gay commitment ceremonies
wanted them to celebrate their love in a culture that doesn't accept them (327)
defense of marriage act- legal union b/w man and woman (no gay) - ruled unconstitutional
The combined vast array of cross-cultural research about human sexuality
ph 330- enforces social boundaries under colonialism
pg 333- impact of intersection of race and sexuality on the identities, relationships, and families of black gay women in the US
violence perpetuated through sexually related physical assaults such as rape. prevalent on college campuses.
goes further than no means no or yes. must request consent for each step
travel organized through tourism sector to facilitate commercial sexual relations between tourist and local residents
afro carribean not benefitting from sex tourists.
labor through which one provides sexual services for money
nigerian "those who do the deed" have own dialect