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Environmental Policy and Ethics
Midterm Examination Study Guide
Terms in this set (67)
-What two broad camps do participants in environmental debates fall into?
· Environmentalists and Cornucopians
-What third strand of environmentalism emerged after WWII?
· One more concerned with fighting pollution and protecting biological diversity than with preserving pristine natural areas or managing natural resources effectively
-Why are polls poor measures of the salience of an issue?
· They can be too broad and depending on the wording can sway opinion
-In their quest for balance, what do journalists tend to overstate?
· Extreme positions
-What are "policy entrepreneurs"? What is "softening up" a policy solution? What is "tipping"?
• Policy entrepreneurs - individuals willing to invest their political resources (time money etc.) in linking a problem to a solution
• Softening up - getting people used to a new idea and building acceptance
• Tipping - convergence on a single approach
-What simple idea should public policy intervention be guided by?
· We ought to use those policy approaches that offer the greatest promise of working to resolve the problem at hand
-Why is it hard to measure the effectiveness of environmental policies?
-Which environmental policies have been most effective, and which have been least effective?
-All ethics so far evolved rest upon what single premise?
· that the individual is a member of a community of interdependent party
-How does the land ethic change the role of Homo sapeins?
· from conqueror of the land community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such
-"A thing is right when it _______________________; it is wrong when it ________________."
· tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community
· tends otherwise
-What fallacy of economic determinists do we now need to cast off?
· the belief that economics determines all land use. This is simply not true
-What shows that Darwin's account of ethics owes a debt to Hume?
· Leopold is that Darwin's conception of ethics, in turn, owes a debt to Hume who argues that ethical behavior depends upon and is motivated by "the moral sentiments."
-Why isn't Hume's ethics relativistic and skeptical?
· The moral sentiments are both natural and universal among human beings
-On what concept does Leopold's land ethic rest?
· on the ecological concept of a biotic community
-"the well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life have _______________."
intrinsic value, inherent value
-When do humans have a right to reduce the richness and diversity of nonhuman life forms?
Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
-Why doesn't preservation of wilderness involve dispossessing indigenous peoples?
This does not involve dispossessing indigenous peoples who have found ways of living within those ecosystems without destroying them
-What view does "ecological feminism" refer to?
· ecological feminism is the view that there are important connections (historical, experiential, symbolic, and theoretical) between the domination of women and the domination of nature, an understanding of which is crucial to both feminism and environmental ethics
-What are the 3 features of oppressive conceptual frameworks? Which is the most significant?
· (1) value-hierarchical thinking, i.e. "up-down" thinking which places higher value, status, or prestige on what is "up" rather than on what is "down";
· (2) value dualisms, i.e. disjunctive pairs which are seen as oppositional (rather than as complementary) and exclusive (rather than as inclusive), and which place higher value (status, prestige) on one disjunct rather than the other (e.g. dualisms which give higher value or status to that which has been identified as "mind," "reason," and "male" than to that which has historically been identified as "body," "emotion," and "female"); and
· (3) the logic of domination, i.e., a structure of argumentation which leads to a justification of subordination.
-Ecofeminism reconceives of feminism as __________________________.
· reconceive traditional feminism in ways which include naturism as a legitimate feminist issue and call for an end to all forms of oppression.
-What is preservationism? What is restorationism?
Why can't preservationism or restorationism serve as a model for ideal human relations with nature?
- _____________________ created wilderness.
-The development of herding and agriculture and led to the application of the concept of 'wild' to....?
-After the "New Frontier" ended, the ___________________ began to work on behalf of wilderness.
-Presidential Powers: What have presidents increasingly used to enact their environmental agendas?
-During Reagan's term, what was the attitude of Congress regarding his environmental goals?
· They did not support his broader environmental goals
-What was the most important legislative achievement of George H.W. Bush's presidency?
· Clean Air Acts Amendment
-What two failed efforts early in his presidency bogged down Clinton's environmental agenda?
· BTU tax, raise grazing fees on public lands
-What did George W. Bush propose for the EPA budget? How did Congress react to this proposal?
· $500 M cut or 6.4%
-Why was Obama's plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants so important?
· These were the largest single source of greenhouse gasses
-Congress -When was there bipartisan support in Congress for environmental policies?
-What lesson seems to follow from the failure of Newt Gingrich to repeal environmental regulations?
-Besides legislation and advocacy, Congress can have a major impact on the agenda through...
--In what five ways can courts shape environmental policy?
· Determines who has standing
· Determines ripeness
· Standard of review
· Interpreting environmental law
· Remedies they choose
-What did the Massachusetts v. EPA global warming case establish regarding standing?
· A party must demonstrate an injury
-Babbitt v. Sweet Home showed what about appropriate interpretation of the Endangered Species Act?
-What are Supplemental Environmental Projects? Why have they become increasingly popular?
-What is Stone "quite seriously proposing"? What two silly things is Stone NOT saying?
• I am quite seriously proposing that we give legal rights to forests, oceans, rivers and other so-called "natural objects"· in the environment-indeed, to the natural environment.
• not to say anything as silly as that no one should be allowed to cut down a tree.
• I am not saying anything as silly as that we ought to overrule Baker v. Carr and retreat from one man-one vote to a system of one man-or-tree one vote
-How does Stone reply to the objection that streams cannot have rights because they cannot speak?
· Corporations cannot speak either; nor can states, estates, infants, incompetents, muncipalities or universities. Lawyers speak for them, as they customarily do for the ordinary citizen with legal problems.
-Why can't we fall back on "fair market value" to calculate damages to natural objects?
· But the lost environmental "values" of which we are now speaking are over and above those that the market is prepared to bid for: they are priceless
-What was the status of governmental efforts to reduce pollution before 1970?
• The federal government was uninvolved
• They were more concerned with economic development
-What competition encouraged President Nixon to adopt ambitious environmental policies?
· The opponent Muskie
-What is 'regulatory capture'? What 2 methods did Congress use to avoid regulatory capture of the EPA?
· Agencies become subservient to the industries they are supposed to monitor
-What historical event helped weaken the Clean Air Act? Why did the Transportation Control Plans fail?
· The energy crisis of 1973-1974
-What kind of pollution "is only beginning to be addressed seriously under the Clean Water Act"?
· Nonpoint-source polution: runoff from farms, streets, mines, logged forests, etc.
-Household insecticides are actually "nonselective chemicals that have the power to kill...."
· to kill every insect, the 'good' and the 'bad', to still the song of birds and the leaping of fish in the streams, to coat the leaves with a deadly film, and to linger on in soil—all this though the intended target may be only a few weeds or insects
-How do insect populations respond to applications of DDT? What process of escalation does this create?
a process of escalation has been going on in which ever more toxic materials must be found
-What do the alternatives to insecticides that are under development all have in common?
· they are biological solutions, based on understanding of the living organisms they seek to control, and of the whole fabric of life to which these organisms belong
-What unavoidable challenges does the EPA face?
The primary tool that they have been given is regulations
-The law requires ________________ to have EPA permits and use the best available control technology
· All new sources of air pollution
-The Federal Water Pollution Control Act authorizes the EPA to regulate ______________________.
· All point sources of water pollution
-What did the 'cap and trade' sulfur emissions system created by President Bush do? What did it not do?
· It limited emissions, but it does not reduce pollution evenly across the board
-What was the status of Chesapeake Bay pollution control efforts in 2010?
· Efforts to reduce pollution had fallen 40 percent short of their goals
-Why does the problem of nonpoint-source water pollution seem well suited for an EBM approach?
Why have the sophisticated hydrologic models of Chesapeake Bay proven to be controversial?
· People rely on these models instead of relying on data
What turned out to be among the cheapest and most effective measures to reduce nutrients in sewage?
· Phosphate detergent ban
What new approach to reducing runoff from farms did Pennsylvania begin experimenting with in 2007?
· tradeable pollution credits
What did 2017 assessments show about anti-pollution efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed?
· Targets were met for phosphorous and sediment, but not for polluted runoff
-From what terms is "bioregionalism" derived? What is a bioregion?
· For there is really nothing so mysterious about the components of the word—"bio," from the Greek for life; "regional," from the Latin for territory to be ruled; "ism," from the Greek for doctrine—and nothing, after a moment's thought, so terribly strange in what they convey.
What does a bioregional economy seek to do? How does it seek to do this?
· would seek to maintain rather than exploit the natural world, accommodate to the environment rather than resist it;
Why would a bioregion mitigate misconduct more effectively than larger scale communities?
· because bonds of community are strong, and material and social needs for the most part fulfilled; a scale at which the consequences of individual and regional actions are visible and unconcealable, and violence can be seen to be a transgression against the environment and its people in defiance of basic ecological common sense
In what sense will bioregionalism enable us to recapture what the American Indians knew?
-Why isn't it enough to "love nature" or "be in harmony with Gaia"? What more is needed?
· Our relation to the natural world takes place in a place, and it must be grounded in information and experience.
For the non-Native American to become at home on this continent, what must we do?
· he or she must be born again in this hemisphere, on this continent, properly called Turtle Island
What name did Native Americans give to the North American continent? Why is this name important?
• "Turtle Island" is the name given this continent by Native Americans based on creation mythology
• It is shaped like a turtle
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