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Abusive ad hominem
a type of personal attach fallacy that is commited be attacking the character of the opposing speaker rather than his or her thesis.
the fallacy that occurs when a statement is ambiguous because (1) the intended tone of voice is uncertain (2) its stress is unclear (3) it is quoted out of context
appeal to authority
the fallacy committed by seeking to persuade not by giving evidence but merely by citing an authority.
appeal to ignorance
the fallacy that occurs when the lack of evidence against thesis is emphasized rather than the evidence for the thesis
a piece of persuasive reasoning in which one or more statements ( the premises) are offered as support for some other statement (conclusion)
an essay that takes a widely held conclusion particular to a subject, or conclusion particular to another writer or thinker, and agreed with, disagrees with, or somehow modifies the conclusion
a two-premises deductive argument containing three terms (the major, the minor, and the middle terms), each term occurring two times in the argument
begging the question
the fallacy committed by assuming the conclusion of an argument in the premises. It is committed in three ways (1) offering, as a premise, a simple restatement of the conclusion; (2) giving a circular argument that justifies the conclusion with the conclusion; and (3) subsuming a suspect particular under a generalization that is even more problematic
the fallacy that is committed by assuming that a distinction is exclusive, when other alternatives exist. Also known as the "either/or fallacy," "black-and-white fallacy" and "false dilemma"
circumstantial ad hominem
a type of personal-attack fallacy in which the opposing speaker is accused of having vested interests
the interrogative form of begging the question. The fallacy is committed by posing a question that has an unwarranted assumption.
the fallacy committed by assuming that what is true of parts (or members) is true of the whole (or group)
(1) the statement in an argument that is supported by the premises; (2) the statement that the arguer attempts to prove.
a word or phrase that often accompanies a conclusion. Examples include "therefore"; "thus"; "hence"; "it follows that"; 'we may infer that"; "so"; and "we may conclude that"
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