33 terms

Haitian Revolution Study Guide

GDS students in Antika's 7th grade history
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Terms in this set (...)

Affranchi/Mulatto
Affranchi = insulting word for an ex-slave, free people of color. Usually mixed of "mulatto"-mixed race
Napoleon Bonaparte
He became dictator of France in 1799, and wanted to re-establish slavery in the Caribbean and in the French empire. He also destroyed the democratic republic
General Leclerc
He worked with Napoleon and invaded Saint-Domingue to capture Louverture because he and his work was a threat in 1802. He also went there to re-impose slavery. Louverture was captured by Leclerc and sent to exile where he died in 1803. Leclerc was Napoleon's brother in law
Toussaint Louverture
An affranchis and lieutenant of Dessalines after the slave revolt in 1791. He helped get rid of Rigaud, and, in 1803 created the new and independent flag of Haiti. In 1804, Dessalines crowned himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti, proclaims all in Haiti "legally black" (meaning free)
Jean Jacques Dessalines
He was a former slave and had a harsh life compared to TL. Served as a lieutenant under TL after the 1791 slave revolt and later repelled incoming French forces
Boukman Dutty
A Vodou priest and a very significant leader in the Haitian Revolution. Although he died rather early in the many years of the revolution he was an important figure in the motivations of the slaves. He led the first slave revolt which was very violent
Slaves
Were usually imported from Africa, and were overworked and underfed. They sometimes married whites on the island, but revolted against slavery on August 22nd, 1791 by burning down plantations and killing their masters. Almost all slaves in Saint-Domingue practiced Vodou which was a sort of resistance against the plantation system
White colonists
The wealthy and rich colonists living in Saint-Domingue, usually plantain and slave owners
1789
The French Revolution started but it wasn't in Saint Domingue and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is created
1791
In August of 1791 was the start of the Haitian Revolution. It was the first revolt led by Boukman Dutty (very violent).The mixed population sends a petition to Paris because they wanted equality and citizenship
1794
French Government abolished slavery in France and all french colonies in part to win over the support of rebels. T.L. abandoned the Spanish and joined the French
1799
Bonaparte overthrows the directory in France. He destroys the democratic republic (anti-slavery principles) and declares himself consul-for-life. T.L. has a Civil War with Rigaud
1801
T.L.'s constitution is not a formal declaration of independence and Bonaparte (a threat) rejects it. Leclerc is sent to re-impose slavery and the code noir
1804
Dessalines proclaims independence and Saint Domingue is re-named a Taiano name of Ayiti is restored to Haiti
French Revolution
It started with a slave revolt in Saint Domingue. In the early years of the revolution, France was debating about the rights of individuals, political participation, and the future of the french government. They were also debating on the future of France's colonies, the rights of people of color and if they should abolish slavery and the slave trade
Civil War
Louverture and Andre Rigaud were fighting over the control of Saint Domingue. Louverture's authority was acknowledged beyond Saint Domingue's borders. By 1799, Louverture controlled the North and West regions and Riguad controlled the south
Slave uprising in 1791
The slaves were revolting against their masters because all they wanted were no whippings and one day to rest. All of the white slave masters fled to Port-Au-Prince (the capital) for security. The slaves burned plantations and coffee farms
Napoleon's coup d'Etat
Napoleon overthrows the directory in France. He destroyed the democratic republic including the anti-slavery principles and declares himself consul-for-life
Places
Hispaniola
Santo-Domingo/Saint-Domingue/Haiti
France
Spain
England
United States
Treaty of Ryswick
Spain gives the western part of the island to the French and they name it Saint Domingue in 1697
Treaty of Basel
Spain gives up their portion of island in 1795.
Vodou
Almost all of the slaves in Saint Domingue practiced the Vodou religion which created a bond or resistance against the plantation system
Exports
Saint Domingue is the sugar capital of the world. It was also popular for Coffee, rum, cotton, and tobacco. It was the capital because the French were forcing the slaves to do hard labor
Impact and significance
The french revolution impacted the louisiana purchase very much and the economy of Haiti in upcoming years
Declaration of the Man
The Declaration states that men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Wealthy whites believe it protects their privileges, while poorer believe it gives them the same privileges
TL's constitution of 1801
Toussaint Louverture proclaims the Saint Domingue's Constitution. This made him governor-for-life but Napoleon Bonaparte declined it. Leclerc was sent to capture T.L. and send him to exile
Dessalines Declaration of Independence from 1804
Jean Jacques Dessalines declares the Independence of Haiti He created the new and independent flag of Haiti. Dessalines crowned himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti, proclaims all in Haiti "legally black" (meaning free)
Andre Rigaud
Another leader of the Revolution, and was born a mulatto. He and Toussaint were working together to defeat the British when they invaded Saint-Domingue in 1797, but then turned against him when fighting for power over Saint-Domingue. A civil war broke out between them in 1799, but was defeated and was exiled to France by Dessalines
1795
Treaty of Basel
1802
General Leclerc captures TL and sends him to a jail cell high in the French Alps.
1803
TL dies of consumption in his jail cell in the alps.
1814
Napoleon Bonaparte exiled to the island of Alba.
1697
Treaty of Ryswick.