Ch Quizzes

SPC 3301
From a personality perspective, how pleasant, accommodating, and cooperative you are is known as extraversion. True or False
Alexithymia is the inability to understand, process, and describe emotions. True or False
The tendency to mimic other people's experiences and expressions is known as emotional contagion. True or False
Emotions are your body's multidimensional response to any event that either enhances or inhibits your goals. True or False
According to your text, happiness is defined as an emotion of caring; a mixture of joy and surprise. True or False
Women are more likely than men to experience sexual jealousy. True or False
According to your text, we can understand many emotions by placing them in one of three categories. Which of the following is not one of those categories?
A. Delusional and sociopathic
B. Joyful and affectionate
C. Sad and anxious
D. Hostile
_______________ leads you to feel as though you're better than someone else.
A. contempt
B. disgust
C. hostility
D. jealousy
A person's ability to "perceive and accurately express emotions, to use emotion to facilitate thought, to understand emotions, and to manage emotions for emotional growth" is known as __________________________.
A. IQ (intelligence quotient)
B. EQ (emotional intelligence)
C. SQ (social intelligence)
D. None of the above
According to Ekman and Friesen, acting as though you are indifferent when you are actually furious is known as ____________.
A. Inhibition
B. Simulation
C. Masking
D. Intensification
Imagine that you have just called a friend, but your friend did not take the call and it went to voicemail. At first, you assume that they were simply away from the phone or busy, but you start to wonder if they might be angry with you or ignoring you. This exercise is an example of what?

A. cognitive complexity
B. interpersonal communication
C. self-monitoring
D. communication competence
Studies involving communication between infants and caregivers have reliably demonstrated that

A. without sufficient interaction, infants will likely develop severe mental illness later in life.
B. human interaction, especially touch, is critical for development and health.
C. infants' language acquisition occurs whether or not their caregivers communicate with them.
D. only a child's biological parents are able to influence their social development
In the communication process, noise can be either physical or psychological. True or False
Having empathy means feeling for someone else. True or False
Ethical communication generally involves treating people fairly, communicating honestly, and avoiding immoral behavior. True or False
Which of the following tools are useful in helping individuals develop and maintain their identity?
A. comparing self to other
B. responding to the way others treat us
C. understanding when and how identity should be adapted
D. each of these is correct
According to the text, which of the following is NOT a necessary characteristic of interpersonal communication?
A. it defines relationships
B. it happens over time
C. it relates to intimate information
D. it occurs between people
Meta-communication occurs when individuals discuss the meaning or subtext of their messages. True or False
The concept of perceptual filters basically states that everyone will derive the same meaning from any given message. True or False
Words have inherent meanings. True or False
A sense of morality and the judgment of right and wrong are known as

a. competence
b. sincerity
c. cognitive complexity
d. ethics
This aspect of communication relates to how well a message meets its goals:

a. effectiveness
b. clarity
c. appropriateness
d. ethics
A sign in the library that reads "No Talking Allowed" would constitute an example of what?

a. perceptual filter
b. relational dimension
c. explicit rule
d. unintentional communication
Which of the following is an example of a channel-rich communication context?

a. writing a letter to someone
b. interacting in an online chat room
c. using text messaging on a cell phone
d. none of these are examples of channel-rich communication.
When people engage in communication about their communication, they are engaging in a process called:

a. perceptual identity checking.
b. communication assurance.
c. meta-communication.
d. understanding maximization.
Different cultures have different standards that define competent communication. This cultural variation speaks to which element of communication competence?

a. effectiveness
b. sensitivity
c. appropriateness
d. responsibility
When your roommate says "We're out of detergent again" and you take that as a criticism, you are paying attention to which aspect of the message?

a. context dimension
b. relational dimension
c. representative dimension
d. content dimension
In the U.S., most people understand that they are expected to form a line and wait for their turn. This is an example of what type of rule?

a. a culture-bound rule
b. an explicit rule
c. an implicit rule
d. an orderly rule
Researchers use this term to describe how aware people are of their own behaviors:

a. cognitive complexity
b. self-monitoring
c. adaptability
d. self-disclosure
The fact that people lie in order to take advantage of others refutes which of the following myths of communication?

a. more communication is better
b. communication is inherently good
c. communication can break down
d. communication can be used to solve any problem
The ability to take another person's perspective, and to think and feel as that person does, is called what?

a. ethics
b. sympathy
c. empathy
d. self-awareness
To say that words are symbols accurately reflects which of the following ideas?

a. people are necessary to give communication its meaning
b. words are representations of ideas
c. words can mean different things to different people
d. all of these are correct
Culture is defined as the learned, shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another. True or False
A person's culture is determined by his or her ethnicity. True or False
Highly feminine cultures value this characteristic more so than highly masculine cultures:

C.achievement D. nurturance
Gender roles are fairly stable and enduring; they rarely change and are consistent across most all cultures. True or False
The U.S. American phrase "a dime a dozen" is an example of a cultural:
A. idiom
B. norm
C. jargon
D. code
Research has found that, on average, same-sex romantic relationships are just as stable and satisfying as opposite-sex romantic relationships. True or False
Sex is biological and genetic, whereas gender is social and cultural. True or False
With respect to sex differences in talk, research has found that:
A. men and women speak about the same amount of words in an average day.
B. men interrupt women more than women interrupt men.
C. women ask more questions than men.
D. all of these
Which of the following is NOT a sexual orientation?
C.bisexuality D. transsexuality
Presuming that most people think, perceive, and believe the same way you do is the primary point behind the:
A. gender assumption
B. androgyny assumption C. similarity assumption D. polychronic assumption
As articulated by Schutz, the need for affection refers to the need to have people love and appreciate us. True or False
According to the Johari Window, there are aspects of our personalities that others can see in us but that we are unaware of. These are known as the __________ aspects of self.
A. open
B. hidden
C. blind
D. unknown
According to the textbook, which of the following statements about people with low self-esteem is not true?

A. People with low self-esteem perform worse in school than do people with high self-esteem. Student Response
B. People with low self-esteem are less likely to be happy than people with high self-esteem.
C. People with low self-esteem are more likely to criticize others.
D. People with low self-esteem are more likely to be depressed.
The way you tend to think and act in most situations defines your:
A. personality
D. behavioral consistency
One of the ways we figure out who we are is by seeing who others think we are. The term for this process is:
A. social comparison
B. reflected appraisal
D. evaluative assessment
In personal relationships, it's always best to increase the breadth and depth of self-disclosure. True or False
Most research supports the notion that low self-disclosure is the underlying cause of juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior. True or False
Your subjective evaluation of yourself is known as:
A.self-evaluation B. self-esteem
D. self-image
Judy thinks it's going to rain today, so she behaves in ways that are consistent with that prediction (e.g., she wears her raincoat, she carries her umbrella). In fact, it does rain, just as she predicted. Is this an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy? Pick the correct answer and explanation.
A. Yes, because she predicted it would rain, and it did.
B. No, because she did not communicate her prediction to others.
C. Yes, because she behaved in ways consistent with her prediction. D. No, because her behaviors did not cause the prediction to come true.
Your own understanding of who you are as a person comprises your:
A. face
B. image
C. reference group
D. self-concept
Jason went to a party with several of his friends last weekend. While he was there, Jason made several inappropriate comments and did not notice that people were offended by what he was saying. Afterwards, several people at the party commented to Jason's friends that they were surprised and upset by his behavior. Which of the following statements is likely true of Jason?

a. Jason has low self-esteem.
b. Jason is a low self-monitor.
c. Jason has a poor self-concept.
d. Jason does not engage in self-fulfilling prophecies.
Martin had been having a hard time in his relationship with his girlfriend, Erica. After a long, tiring day at work, he let it slip to his friend Tony that things hadn't been going well with Erica. Embarrassed, Martin quickly changed the subject and never mentioned that conversation again. Which term accurately describes Martin's statement?

a. self-disclosure
b. accidental disclosure
c. leakage
d. identity management
One of the ways we figure out who we are is by seeing who others think we are. The term for this process is:

a. social comparison
b. reflected appraisal
c. personality
d. evaluative assessment
According to the text, your self-concept is influenced by all of the following except:

a. personality and biology

b. culture and gender roles

c. reflected appraisal

d. self-evaluation
According to social penetration theory, the _______ dimension concerns the number of topics disclosed whereas the _______ dimension concerns the level of detail in topics disclosed.

a. breadth, depth

b. depth, breadth

c. range, penetration

d. penetration, range
Regarding self-disclosure, which of the following statements is true?

a. depth refers to the range of topics you discuss with others

b. most relationships start out with a high degree of self-disclosure

c. self-disclosure is highly reciprocal

d. men and women do not differ from each other in how disclosive they are
Regarding the benefits of high self-esteem, which of the following statements has been supported by the research?

a. Those with high self-esteem are less likely to drink, do drugs, or engage in risky sex

b. Those with high self-esteem do better in school

c. Those with high self-esteem are more outgoing and willing to communicate

d. All of these statements have been supported by the research
When we consider how we want to be perceived by other people, we are considering our:

a. identity

b. image

c. self-monitoring

d. self-concept
Schutz identified three fundamental interpersonal needs. This particular need is the most similar in meaning to fellowship face:

a. need for control

b. need for inclusion

c. need for affection

d. need for autonomy
When we evaluate our own merits with respect to certain reference groups, we are engaging in a process known as:

a. self-esteem maintenance

b. social comparison

c. the looking-glass self

d. impression formation
Organization is the process of assigning meaning to something you have perceived. True or False
The self-serving bias is a form of self delusion. True or False
When it comes to perception-making, it's always best to have the most information possible. True or False
If an attribution is internal then it must also be controllable. True or False
Physiology exerts several effects on interpersonal perception. True or False
We have a tendency to discount first impressions as untrustworthy. True or False
According to your text, the perception-making process consists of three stages. Which of the following is not among them?
A. attribution
D. selection
A number of factors affect the likelihood that we will notice a certain object in our environment. Which of the following was not mentioned in your textbook as something that can increase attention?
A.unusualness B. obscurity
D. intensity
A fellow student in one of your communication classes, Rose, starts acting particularly nice to you in the last couple weeks leading up to the first exam. Classmates have frequently treated you this way in the past in the hopes that you will help them study for upcoming exams. As a result, you are suspicious of Rose's motives. In this scenario, you are likely basing your suspicions on:
a. personal experience
b. your knowledge of Rose
c. the closeness of your relationship with Rose
d. all of these
Which of the following sequences accurately depicts the process of stereotype formation?
A. identify group membership --> apply generalization --> act on prejudice
B. identify group membership --> act on prejudice --> form group generalization C. identify group membership --> recall group generalization --> apply generalization
D. identify group membership --> recall group generalization --> act on prejudice
Arousal is an increase in energy. True or False
Most research strongly supports the common notion that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. True or False
Which of the following nonverbal cues is not commonly associated with deception?
A. displaying an artificial smile to convey happiness B. a decrease in kinesic behaviors
C. a decrease in the pitch and tone of the voice
D. all are associated with deception
These are textual representations of facial expressions, often used in e-mail messages:
A.textspressions B. emoticons
C. e-smiles
D. faceprints
When nonverbal cues conflict with verbal cues, people tend to believe the verbal statements. True or False
According to Edward T. Hall, this range of this type of distance is approximately 1½ to 4 feet:

a. intimate distance

b. personal distance

c. social distance

d. public distance
Of all the senses, smell is most strongly tied to memory. True or False
When you see someone dressed in very tight, dark clothing with spiky hair and eyeliner, you infer that this person is into emo punk rock. This impression is based on which set of cues?
A.demographic B. sociocultural
D. psychographic
Our use of time can send powerful messages about value and power. True or False
Children who are regularly touched develop stronger immune systems than those who are not. True or False
The tendency to assume that attractive people have other positive qualities is called what?

a. positive prototyping

b. character assumption

c. principle of facial primacy

d. halo effect
This aspect of facial attractiveness refers to the relative size of facial features, such as the nose or ears:

a. symmetry

b. neotony

c. proportionality

d. koinophilia
The face is used nonverbally to communicate all of the following except:

a. identity

b. emotion

c. attractiveness

d. Each of these is communicated facially.
Which of the following claims about facial expressions of emotion is not true?

a. Extroverts tend to be better at interpreting nonverbal expressions of emotion than introverts.

b. Women are generally better at understanding facial displays of emotion.

c. Happiness is the easiest facial expression to decode.

d. Facial expressions are easily altered to conceal true emotional states.
The study of touch behavior is known as:

a. haptics

b. oculesics

c. proxemics

d. manosics
The distinct properties that comprise your voice are known collectively as:

a. vocalics

b. vocal cues

c. paralinguistic cues

d. paravocalic devices
When people get excited or aroused, this often happens to their voice:

a. increased articulation

b. decreased loudness

c. reduced inflection

d. increased pitch
The study of how people use movement is called what?

a. haptics

b. kinesics

c. oculesics

d. proxemics
This type of gesture has a direct verbal translation:

a. illustrator

b. regulator

c. emblem

d. adaptor
Competitive interrupting is the tendency not to listen to anything with which you disagree. True or False
What is the number one most important attribute of effective managers, according to 1,000 Human Resource professionals surveyed?
A. Ability to listen effectively and counsel
B. Ability to work well with others one-on-one
C. Ability to work well in small groups
D. Knowledge of job
According to the text, within our relationships, a common goal for listening is to provide empathy and support. True or False
__________________________ is the state of being overwhelmed by the amount of information one takes in.
A. Glazing over
B. Rebuttal tendency
C. Closed-mindedness D. Information overload
According to Dr. Floyd, listening is defined as experiencing what another person is thinking or feeling. True or False
Which of the following is the correct order of the listening responses from most active to most passive?
A. Advising, empathizing, backchanneling, stonewalling
B. Stonewalling, backchannelling, empathizing, advising
C. Empathizing, advising, backchanneling, stonewalling
D. Backchanneling, empathizing, stonewalling, advising
Using facial expressions and verbal statements such as "I understand" to let the speaker know you are paying attention is an example of which of the following types of listening responses?
C.paraphrasing D. backchanneling
To be a good empathic listener, it is important to offer advice, even if you are not asked. True or False
The rebuttal tendency is an effective listening strategy because it requires the listener to pay close attention to the speaker's message to formulate a rebuttal. True or False
Confirmation bias is the tendency not to listen to anything with which you disagree. True or False
When forming friendships, people find several forms of similarity to be attractive. According to research, which of the following is true?
A. Similarity in personalities is the strongest predictor of initial attraction.
B. People generally see attitude similarity as a bad thing.
C. Attitude similarity is the strongest predictor of initial attraction.
D. Cognitive similarity is not influential at any stage of friendship formation.
According to equity theory, it's better to be equally benefited than to be overbenefited. True or False
Other things being equal, we are more likely to form social relationships with people we see often than with people we don't. True of False
_______________ is the force that draws people together.
A. Physical attraction
B. Social attraction
D. Interpersonal attraction
This theory says that each of us is born with a fundamental drive to seek, form, maintain, and protect strong social relationships:
A. equity theory
B. need to belong theory
C. attraction theory
D. predicted outcome value theory
A good relationship does not involve any sort of cost to you. True or False
Which type of sexual harassment includes requesting romantic or sexual favors in return for preferential treatment at work?
A. quid pro quo
B. harassing requests
C. sexual bargaining
D. hostile work environment
When it comes to forming friendships, similarity is good and complementarity is bad. True or False
Uncertainty reduction theory suggests that people get to know each other because they believe the effort will be worth it. True or False
Work relationships usually involve both a task dimension and a social dimension. True or False
In the _____________ stage of friendship, people begin to drift apart and might lose contact with one another.

a. nascent friendship

b. waning friendship

c. declining friendship

d. drifting friendship
Which of the following statements about potential health benefits of relationships is true?

a. People with more social contacts put themselves at greater risk for illnesses like a cold.

b. People with strong social networks are more than twice as likely to survive a heart attack.

c. A lack of social relationships increases the risk of mortality, but not on the same level as smoking, heart disease, or obesity.

d. When friends share their problems with us, it increases our stress and can actually make us less healthy.
Research shows that this is positively related to your job satisfaction:

a. being friends with your co-workers and boss

b. being friends with your customers or clients

c. maintaining personal boundaries at work

d. all of these
This theory predicts that the more we learn about someone, the more we like that person:

a. social exchange theory

b. uncertainty reduction theory

c. attraction theory

d. equity theory
Which of the following statements about friendships is not true?

a. Friendships are voluntary.

b. Friendships are governed by rules.

c. Friendships are the same in both sexes.

d. Friendships usually occur between peers.
Which of the following represents a peer relationship?

a. a graduate student instructor because she teaches a class you're taking

b. your sister because you are siblings in the same family

c. your boss because he works at the same company as you do

d. your parents because you are from the same family
_______________ is the force that draws people together.

a. Physical attraction

b. Social attraction

c. Attraction

d. Interpersonal attraction
Which of the following is one of the friendship rules identified in a study by communication researchers Argyle and Henderson?

a. Protect your friend from potential threats.

b. Don't tell your friend information that might hurt his or her feelings.

c. Don't be jealous of your friend's other friends.

d. Routinely tell your friend that you care about him or her.
Which of the following reasons is most commonly cited for ending a friendship due to changes in life circumstances?

a. having a child

b. moving away

c. getting married

d. experiencing an illness in the family
Which of the following is not an emotional reward commonly associated with close relationships?

a. comfort and empathy

b. happiness

c. emotional confirmation

d. all of these are emotional rewards
Research indicates that most American households are headed by a married couple. True or False
People in arranged marriages are typically unhappy with their chosen spouse. True or False
________________ are behaviors that indicate to other people how much we value them.
A. Compassionate interactions
B. Affectionate interactions
C. Supportive messages
D. Confirming messages
Dialectical tensions are rare in most intimate relationships. True or False
Research has shown that much of the communication that typically occurs during the initiation phase of relationships is now being done online. True or False
This strategy for managing dialectical tensions involves compromising, or finding a middle ground between the two opposing forces of the tension:

B. balance
D. recalibration
The denial strategy for managing dialectical tensions involves responding to only one side of the tension and ignoring the other side. True or False
From a legal perspective, this is the most heavily regulated relationship in the United States: b. c. sibling relationships d. marital relationships
A. Parent-child relationships
B. parent-adoptive child relationships
C. sibling relationships D. marital relationships
Gottman has discovered that satisfied couples maintain this ratio of positive to negative communication:

a. 5:1

b. 8:1

c. 14:1

d. 1:1
Why is the discussion of routine, mundane tasks important to consider in long-term romantic relationships?
A. The way couples handle these tasks reflects the balance of power in their relationship.
B. How to handle these issues can become a major issue of contention.
C. Most of the communication that takes place in these relationships falls in this category.
D. All of these.
This relates to the resources we put into a relationship:

a. interdependence

b. investment

c. commitment

d. independence
Which of the following is not one of the suggestions made in your textbook for improving communication in intimate relationships?

a. emphasizing excitement and positivity

b. avoiding conflict

c. having realistic expectations

d. managing dialectical tensions
Jordan wants to feel emotionally close to his girlfriend but he also wants to make his own decisions. Which dialectical tension is he experiencing?

a. openness-closedness

b. revelation-concealment

c. novelty-predictability

d. autonomy-connectedness
All of the following are characteristics of an intimate relationship except:

a. need for deep commitment

b. minimization of independence

c. dialectical tensions

d. continuous investment
Preliminary research has shown that, compared to heterosexual couples, homosexual couples tend to:

a. display more overt hostility during conflict

b. terminate their relationships at the first sign of conflict

c. take conflict less personally

d. avoid conflict as much as possible
Which of the following is not one of the health benefits of marriage identified in your textbook?

a. Married people live longer.

b. Married people tend to be healthier.

c. Married people have better sexual health.

d. Married people are less likely to use and abuse alcohol and drugs.
When it comes to intimate relationships and shared activities, research has shown that:

a. exhilarating activities are the most effective for promoting feelings of closeness

b. any activity is useful for promoting closeness as long as the individuals enjoy it

c. activities that produce some type of tangible outcome (i.e., cooking dinner together) are the most effective at promoting feelings of closeness

d. activities that promote physical contact and touching are the most effective for promoting feelings of closeness
Which of the following statements about same-sex partners is true?

a. Many enter into formal relationships known as domestic partnerships.

b. Communication in sex-same partnerships resembles that in opposite-sex partnerships.

c. Satisfaction levels in same-sex partnerships are equal to those in opposite-sex partnerships.

d. All of these are true.
According to Gottman, people engage in this behavior when they insult each other and attack each other's self worth:

a. contempt

b. defensiveness

c. criticism

d. stonewalling
The strength of the immune system is predicted by the way people handle conflict, particularly in romantic relationships. True or False
The topics that gay and lesbian couples experience conflict over tend to differ from the conflict topics of heterosexual couples. True or False
When engaged in interpersonal conflict, ______________ is the practice of saving up past grievances and throwing them all into a conflict at the same time.

B. counter-attacking
D. rubber band-balling
Stonewalling involves seeing yourself as a victim and denying responsibility for your own behaviors. True or False
Which of the following is true with respect to interpersonal conflict?

a. It involves independent parties.

b. It involves perceived scarce resources.

c. It occurs within oneself.

d. It is synonymous with disagreement.
Felix had been angry with his roommate Hector for some time. Hector was always playing his music so loud that Felix couldn't concentrate much less have a conversation on the telephone. Despite his anger, he hadn't expressed his feelings to Hector. Which of the following is true of this situation?

a. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict because Felix's anger is sufficient to produce conflict.

b. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict because the source of their conflict is not interpersonal.

c. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict because conflict can exist "under the surface" for some time.

d. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict because conflict must be an expressed struggle.
Frank and Samantha just received a large inheritance when Samantha's grandmother passed away. Since it was Samantha's grandmother, she felt like she should be able to spend the money how she wanted: building a room addition on their house. Frank disagreed and wanted to buy a more fuel-efficient car that they could drive to and from work. Which of the following is true about this situation?

a. This is an example of conflict because it involves an expressed struggle.

b. This is an example of conflict because it involves scarce resources.

c. This is an example of conflict because it involves incompatible goals.

d. All of these are true.
According to Gottman, people engage in this behavior when they insult each other and attack each other's self worth:

a. contempt

b. defensiveness

c. criticism

d. stonewalling
This conflict-management strategy involves a high concern for the other party but a low concern for the self:

a. collaborating

b. accommodating

c. avoiding

d. compromising
According to deception research, which of the following behavioral changes is a reliable cue to deception?

A. decreased eye contact
B. decreased gesturing
C. reduced vocal pitch
D. increased smiling
Most people are quite good at detecting deception. True or False
Many forms of politeness and discretion involve being deceptive. True or False
Frank's grandfather loved to fish. Every time he came back from the lake, the fish that he caught and released seemed to get bigger and bigger. We can infer from this story that Frank's grandfather likely engaged in deception by:

D. exaggeration
It is possible to be deceptive without ever saying a word. True or False
When Tonya's boss asked her what time their meeting with the new client was, Tonya replied that it was that afternoon at 3:30 p.m. She was so certain, that she did not bother to check her calendar first. When Tonya and her boss arrived at the client's office, the client was very upset because she had been waiting for 30 minutes for their 3 p.m. meeting. Tonya then checked her calendar, and sure enough, the meeting had been scheduled for 3 p.m. Which of the following is true of this scenario?

a. Tonya lied to her boss in order to avoid potential harm.

b. Tonya did not lie to her boss because she didn't mean for her boss to take her word.

c. Tonya lied to her boss because she failed to check facts before making a statement.

d. Tonya did not lie to her boss because she believed her statement was true.
Misrepresentations of facts for material gain are known as:

a. forgery

b. impersonation

c. fraud

d. deception
What is meant by the phrase "deception can serve as a social lubricant?"

a. People commonly engage in deception to get what they want from other people.

b. People commonly engage in deception to avoid hurting others' feelings.

c. People commonly engage in deception in order to impress others.

d. People commonly engage in deception in order to increase their number of friends.
What is the Othello error?

a. A listener is so suspicious that they doubt someone else's truthful statement.

b. People tend to look for deception in bad news more than in good news.

c. People tend to look for deception in good news more than in bad news.

d. A listener is so trusting of another that they do not evaluate the truthfulness of their statements.
Which of the following words is not directly related to the others?

a. simulation

b. omission

c. falsification

d. exaggeration
In her diary study, communication scientist Sandra Metts found that almost half of people's deception attempts involved this form of deception:

a. falsification

b. hyperbole

c. omission

d. exaggeration
Research indicates that the average person can detect deception approximately what percentage of the time?

a. 25%

b. 40%

c. 55%

d. 70%
Which of the following contributes to people's inability to detect deception accurately?

a. truth bias

b. focusing on the wrong nonverbal signals

c. questioning everything we hear takes too much energy

d. all of these
According to research, most people discover that they have been lied to when:

a. the liar confesses

b. a third party reveals the truth

c. circumstantial evidence incriminates the liar

d. they investigate the evidence for themselves
Deception has several characteristics; which of the following is not among them?

a. The sender must believe the information is false.

b. The receiver must believe the information is true.

c. The information must be transmitted knowingly.

d. The sender must intend to create a false belief in the receiver.
other-sex touch is more common than same-sex touch. True or False
women use more nonverbal affection behaviors possibly because:
a. affection offered as children
b. affectionate communication perceived as feminine behavior
c. balance of hormones
d. all of these are possible