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De jure segregation

segregation that is imposed by law

De facto segregation

segregation (especially in schools) that happens although not required by law

Thurgood Marshall

American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.

Earl Warren

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement

Montgomery bus boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

Martin Luther King Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. He opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

Little Rock Nine

The school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People


nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave


Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such

Freedom ride

A ride made by civil rights workers to desegregate public facilities, such as bus terminals or lunch counters.

James Meredith

United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)

Medgar Evers

United States civil rights worker in Mississippi

March on Washington

held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally


tactic in which senators take the floor, begin talking, and refuse to stop talking to permit a vote on a measure

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.


an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality

Freedom Summer

In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.

Fannie Lou Hamer

spokesperson for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention

Voting Rights Act

1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote

Twenty-fourth Amendment

It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.

Malcolm X

militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)

Nation of Islam

a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans

Black power

the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.

Black Panthers

a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites

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