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scientific method; study of life
Terms in this set (61)
life, -Logy = the study of
is the study of living things and their surroundings
a living thing; anything possessing the characteristics of living things.
All living things are organized in the following way:
atoms→ molecules → cell parts → cells → tissues→ organs → organ system → organisms (smallest to largest)
prediction. Testable sentence. Usually in
procedure done to
test a hypothesis.
data that can be counted or measured,
data gathered by observing qualities, descriptive
the part of the experiment that is changed or manipulated in the beginning (I change the IV)
the part of the experiment that is different at the end; the part that is measured at the end. (DV = Data)
conditions in an experiment that are the same for every group.
the group that is kept under normal conditions or that is not being tested.
All living things
• grow and develop.
• are organized.
• adjust to their
• need energy (ATP).
• are made up of cells.
• contain genetic
organisms making more of their own kind, making offspring. (asexual= 1 parent, identical offspring/ sexual = 2 parents, hybrid offspring)
organism gets bigger in size which often means an increase in cell number sometimes as a result of increasing internal complexity
organism changes shape or form, new structures
type of development where an organism makes a very big change in shape or form. Ex: tadpole to a frog
organism's surroundings, both living and nonliving.
physical change that arises in an organism over time through the process of evolution. Can be physical (webbed feet of ducks to swim) or behavioral (changing colors to blend in with surroundings) Plants also adapt (thorns for protection from predators, stop photosynthesis when not enough light or water)
an organism remaining constant in a changing environment; maintaining a stable, internal environment
Every organism tries to regulate how much of each chemical is present in it to keep the level constant.TOO much or TOO little is bad! Ex: body temperature = 98.6; too cold or too hot is bad and that is why we sweat or shiver to maintain that 98.6
cells are the
smallest units of life
all living things composed of
one or more cells
cells are organized structures surrounded by
a selectively permeable membrane made of
lipids and proteins
sum of all chemical reactions that take place within an organism
all living things must reproduce
all organisms use energy to do what?
grow, move, and to process information
nearly all energy used by living organisms originates from what?
how is solar energy used? (metabolism)
to make complex molecules which serve as a source of energy or food for other living organisms
how does energy flow?
through ecosystems from plants
up to higher organisms
homeostasis is also called
all living things must maintain a stable internal environment in spite of changes in the external environment
living things must be able to pass on their
the units of heredity is
genes which are made of DNA
the recipes for making proteins
a change in a gene
mutations can be
bad or lethal 99.9% of the time
human genetic disorders like sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease
mutations that are passed on are in
sex cells (sperm and egg)
mutations that are not passes on but may give rise to
diseases like cancer are in the
body cells (somatic cells)
genetic change produced by life
a group of organisms that can only produce fertile offspring when they reproduce with other members of
the result of a genetic mutation is
variation within a species
organisms evolve as a result of natural selection
those with the greatest potential to survive
the result of natural selection
is the diversity of life on earth
living things depend on other living things within their
when an organisms biological community is disrupted what will happen to them?
they will die bc living things interact with other living organisms in biological communities
one way to determine if something is alive or dead
all activities by which an organism obtains materials from the environment
makes own food; plants
must obtain it's own food from other organisms; humans
take in food
breakdown of large molecules
removal or elimination of undigested food
absorption of the products of digestion
circulation and distribution of materials like gas, nutrients, wastes etc
cellular respiration (not breathing)
involves the production of energy from the breakdown products of digestion
respiration causes the
production of ATP which is a form of energy that can be stored
removal of wastes produced by cellular metabolism such as CO 2 or urea
the production of larger molecules from smaller molecules obtained from nutrients
coordination of all life processes to maintain homeostasis...a stable internal environment....principle
function of the endocrine (hormones) and nervous systems
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