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What are the Organs of the Urinary System?

1. Two kidneys
2. Two ureters
3. bladder
4. urethra

* 7 Functions of the Kidneys *
1. filters ...
2. separates ...
3. regulates (2) ...
4. secretes ...
5. regulates (1) ...
6. synthesizes ...
7. generates ...

1. filters blood plasma
2. separates wastes from useful chemicals
3. regulate blood volume and pressure
4. secretes renin & erythropoietin
5. regulates blood pH
6. synthesizes calcitriol
7. generates glucose (when starving)

What is a Nephron?

the functional unit of the kidney

What are the 2 principle parts of the Nephron?
Give function of each.

1. Renal Corpuscle:
** filters blood plasma
2. Renal Tubule:
** converts the filtrate to urine

List all 4 blood vessels associated with the nephron
and their function.

1. Afferent arteriole - brings blood to glomerulus
2. Efferent arteriole - carries blood away
3. Peritubular capillaries - tiny blood vessels, allowing
reabsorption & secretion between blood & nephron
4. Glomerular capillaries - where filtration of blood occurs

* Urine Formation *

The First step in urine formation is filtration of substances out of the ____ and into the ____.

1. glomerular capillaries
2. glomerular capsule

* Urine Formation *

The Glomerular filtrate passes through the ____
of the capillary endothelium.


The 3 stages of urine formation and where they occur?

1. glomerular filtration:
* occurs in glomerulus

2. Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion:
* Re-absorption occurs in PCT
* Secretion occurs in DCT

3. Water concervation:
* occurs in Collecting Duct (CD)

Urine is the final product of what 3 processes?

1. glomerular filtration
2. tubular reabsorption
3. tubular secretion

* #1 Urine Formation *

Glomerular filtration is caused by the force of ____
through the glomerular ____

1. blood pressure
2. capillaries

* #1 Urine Formation *

Glomerular filtration occurs because the high blood pressure of the glomerular capillaries overrides ...


* #1 Urine Formation *

Glomerular Filtration is maintained at a steady rate in spite o variations in systemic blood pressure.
This stability is achieved by what 3 things?

1. renal autoregulation
2. sympathetic control
3. hormonal control

* #1 Urine Formation *

During Glomerular filtration substances move from the ____ into the ____.
Give examples.

1. blood
2. glomerular capsule
Ex: water and small molecules

* #2 Urine Formation *

During Tubular Re-absorption substances move from the ____ into the blood of the ____.
Give Examples.

Tubular Re-absorption:
1. renal tubules
2. peritubular capillaries
Ex: glucose, water, urea, proteins, creatine
amino, lactic, citric, and uric acids
phosphate, sulfate, calcium, potassium, sodium ions

Tubular Secretion:
1. removal of solutes from blood & secreting them into the
tubual fluid

* #2 Urine Formation *

During Tubular Secretion substances move from blood of ____ into the ____.
Give 4 examples for secretion.

Tubular secretion:
1. Peritubular capillaries
2. renal tubules
example: drugs and ions

* #2 Urine Formation *

The DCT essentially completes the process of determining the ____ of the urine.

chemical composition

* #3 Urine Formation *

The principal function of the Collecting duct is to ...

conserve water

* #3 Water Conservation *

During Water Conervation, water is removed from the ___ and returned to the ____ and wastes (urine)
is ____.

1. urine
2. blood
3. concentrated

* #3 Urine Formation *

In a state of Hydration:
ADH is NOT secreted and the CORTICAL part of the collecting duct re-absorbs ____ without ____.

In a state of Dehydration:
ADH is secreted, and the MEDULLARY part of the collecting duct re-absorbs ____ , and the urine is more ____.

In a state of Hydration:
1. CD re-absorbs salt
2. WITHOUT re-absorbing water.

In a state of Dehydration:
1. water

* #3 Urine Formation *

The CD is able to regulate H2O because it passes
through a ...

salinity gradient in the medulla

* #3 Urine Formation *

The Salinity gradient is produced by a counter-
current multiplier of the nephron loop, which
concentrates ____ in the lower medulla, and by diffusion of ____ from the collecting duct into the

1. NaCI
2. urea

* #3 Urine Formation *

The vasa recta are arranged as a countercurrent exchange system that enables them to supply blood
to the medulla without subtracting from the medula's

salinity gradient

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