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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
chapter 18 review: the french revolution
Terms in this set (46)
"the old way of doing things," how government, religion + thought worked around 1500. The groups that ruled under the ancien regime were divided up into estates. The first estate (clergy) consisted of priests and monks and had the most say in society because they were considered closest to God. The second estate (Nobles) were the wealthier people who had a lot of say in society but always came second to the first estate. The third estate (peasants) were at rock bottom. They had no say in laws or rules that were made in society.
A Swiss-born banker who served as France's director general of finance in the late 1770s, with high hopes of instituting reform. As it turned out, Necker was able only to propose small efforts at eliminating costly inefficiencies. He did produce a government budget, however, for the first time in French history. He was appointed by Louis XVI to resolve problems economically in frace.
About 97 percent of the people belonged to the Third Estate. The three groups that made up this estate differed greatly in their economic conditions. The first group—the bourgeoisie, or middle class—were bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. Often, they were well educated and believed strongly in the Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality. Although some of the bourgeoisie were as rich as nobles, they paid high taxes and, like the rest of the Third Estate, lacked privileges. Many felt that their wealth entitled them to a greater degree of social status and political power. The number of French merchants, lawyers and other professional groups clearly grew over the course of the century. As a result, members of the bourgeoisie became stronger and more widely read and more self-confident. The bourgeoisie resented distinctions that the nobles enjoyed. Some were financial. Nobles were exempt on principle from the most important direct tax, the taille. Bourgeois obtained exemption with more effort, but so many bourgeoisie enjoyed tax privileges that purely monetary self-interest was not primary in their psychology. They resented nobles for superiority and arrogance. What was formerly customary respect was not felt as humiliation. They felt shut out from office and honors, and they felt that the nobles were seeking more power in government as a class. The workers of France's cities formed the second, and poorest, group within the Third Estate. These urban workers included trades people, apprentices, laborers, and domestic servants. Paid low wages and frequently out of work, they often went hungry. If the cost of bread rose, mobs of these workers might attack grain carts and bread shops to steal what they needed. Peasants formed the largest group within the Third Estate, more than 80 percent of France's 26 million people. Peasants paid about half their income in dues to nobles, tithes to the Church, and taxes to the king's agents. They even paid taxes on such basic staples as salt. Peasants and the urban poor resented the clergy and the nobles for their privileges and special treatment. The Third Estate was eager for change. The Third Estate was renamed to The National Assembly in June 17. 1789, when Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes proposed they do so. the king alouded doubling of the third because the population of the third estate was much more vast than each of the other groups.
The Brunswick Manifesto
Was a declaration from the Prussian and Austrian monarchs that if France harmed any of the royal family that those two countries would attack France. these countries were related to queen Marie Antoinette of France., Issued by the Duke of Brunswick in July 1792; threatened to Harm the civilians or people of France if the French royalty was not released from imprisonment. This was supposed to scare the French into releasing Louis, it had the opposite effect. Soon after this declaration, France went to war with Austria.
83 new counties came in affect after the constitution of 1791. these new departments would be named after physical landmarks near that department. these departments limited how many bishops in each department to one bishop per each department. , Part of the Naitonal Assembly's reforms, these were eighty-three districts wherein local officials would be elected.
Constitution of 1791
Constitution prepared by National Assembly which was increasingly referred to as the Constituent Assembly. Document complete in 1791. Established a unicameral(one-chambered) assembly which was the legislature(law-making body). The king had a suspension(delaying) veto only therefore the executive branch of govt. was weak. This was wrote because the people of France who did not have the right of the nobility wanted privileges like the nobility. this was all brought on by enlightened thought.
Most Radical political faction in the Convention. Became fierce critics of the Girondins. The Mountain & Jacobins will eventually become synonymous. Claimed to represent the aims of the Sans-culottes., 1st political faction of the National Convention; it's members were called Montagnards and they were the most radical; their support came from the lower middle class/poor. They wanted to kill those who did not believe that the new revolution was vital.
Cult of the Supreme Being
a civic religion (that means it was forced upon the citizens by the government) that was centered on nature (that means they worshiped bugs and rocks) that was instituted during the Reign of Terror., Cult started by Robespierre. He wanted it to become the state religion of France. They transformed the Notre Dame cathedral into the temple of Knowledge because they needed a religion that rational and this was a part of the enlightenment thought process. They had their own goddess named the goddess of Liberty.
A court instituted in Paris by the Convention between October 1793 and the Thermidorian Reaction, the Tribunal was one of the main instruments of the Reign of Terror and had many people guillotined., This was created to "try the enemies of the Revolution" Created by Danton, it was created to speed the work of repressing dissent during the Terror. It had 16 judges and 60 jurors and was divided into several courts. Mainly dealt with "counterrevolutionaries" People were sent to it not to be judged but to be "destroyed"
Civil constitution of the clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
estates general of France who succeded Jaques Necker who proposed to encourage internal trade, lower taxes, and transform peasants' services to money payments; urged introduction of new land tax that would require payments from all landowners regardless of social status; intended to make local assemblies to approve land taxes with voting power based on amount of land owned not social status
the white terror
took place in 1794, during the period known as the Thermidorian Reaction, in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror. It was organized by reactionary royalist forces, and was targeted at the radical Jacobins and anyone suspected of supporting them. Throughout France, both real and suspected Jacobins were attacked and often murdered. Just like during the Reign of Terror, trials were held with little regard for due process. In other cases, gangs of youths who had aristocratic connections roamed the streets beating known Jacobins. These "bands of Jesus" dragged suspected terrorists from prisons and murdered them much as alleged royalists had been murdered during the September Massacres of 1792.
The September Massacres
a wave of mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792. By the time it had subsided, half the prison population of Paris had been executed: some 1,200 trapped prisoners, including many women and young boys. Sporadic violence, in particular against the Roman Catholic Church, would continue throughout France for nearly a decade to come., what was the event called when, during the first weeks of September 1792, the Paris commune executed or murdered about 1,200 people who were in the city jails
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
A document which was similar to the American Declaration of Independence; it preserved French citizens' natural rights; , stated that men are born with equal rights, such as liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression, and innocence until proven guilty., document adopted by the National Assembly stating all men are equal before the law; embodied the principles liberty, equality, fraternity
The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Citizen
A document similar the Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizen. women wanted the same rights that men had even this would never be granted in this time period. women wanted to vote. they wanted to be apart of the national Assembly they wanted to be free with liberty and prosperty
In November of 1793, the Convention made an attempt to de-Christianize France. This action in turn provided for the justification of the Reign of Terror. It commenced at the establishment of a new calendar consisting of twelve, thirty-day months. Later, the Cathedral of Notre Dame was transformed into the "Temple of Reason." In the worship of reason, deputies on mission were sent to prosecute clergymen and close local parishes. In consequence, much opposition rose from this religious movement.
Law of Suspects
Allows anyone who is merely suspected of challenging the republic or the revolution can be arrested without trial. If that do go to trial. they can be executed for the most minor of things.
A set of thirteen provincial judicial boards -- one based in Paris and the other twelve in major provincial cities -- that constituted the independent judiciary of France. The parlements held the power of recording royal decrees, meaning that if a parlement refused to record an edict, the edict would never be implemented in that district.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. they wanted to figure out what was wrong with the french economic system they were and they wanted to make the changes. one of the biggest topics was taxation.
Oath of the Tennis Court
National Assembly is locked out of meeting place for estates-general and meets elsewhere where they pledged to not leave until a constitution was made. Starts the first phase of the revolution. this group was made up with most of the 3rd estate few clergy and noble men. this is where those few denounced their rights and privileges to create a new constitution.
Marquis de Lafayette
a French aristocrat who offered his assistance to George Washington in 1778. He lobbied for French reinforcements in 1779, and led a command in Virginia in the last years of the war. He was the General of the national guard in France during the french revolution era
Literal translation - without breeches or wearing long, workman's pants as opposed to the dress culottes. This was name given to Parisian militants to signify that they were manual laborers. Between 1792 and 1794 the name referred to specific group of political activists who were attempting to put pressure on the National Convention through the mobilization of local clubs and assemblies.
In December of 1789 this was a paper currency issued by the Constituent Assembly which had confiscated church property and issued this paper money based on this land. Initially could just by land with it though later it was used as a general currency. Supposed to help ease the difficulties of peasants but all sorts of problems with it - over-issued plus easily forged. this made the french economy even worse than it was before.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue., He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention. Had the Mountains join forces with the sans-culottes, as well as joining the Committee of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution. He was beheaded by a guillotine like most of the people he convicted were.
Lomenie de Brienne
Succeeded Calonne. He was Archbishop of Toulouse. Very worldly-wise. Tried to push Calonne's program through the Parlement of Paris but Parlement said only the Estates General could consent to new taxes. Brienne and L XVI tried to replace the Parlements but they resisted. In 1788 Brienne and Louis XVI promised to call the Estates General.
Event in 1794 that ended the Reign of Terror. Executed Robespierre in 1794, saw a major shift to the conservative right, readmitted the Girondins, lifted economic controls, and ended the control of the sans-culottes. Also created a new Revolutionary Calendar that was non-Christian. They kicked the Jacobin and Mountain factions out of Paris so they had no government input after the revolution.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution. The new scientist said that this was the most rational way of murdering a person because during this time period the enlightened rational thought was important
The Chapelier Law
Forbade workers' associations. they did not want any worker unions, June 14 1790 this was implemented
peasants who revolted against the military draft. It showed that the National Convention did not rule all of France. Their saying was "Long live the king and our good priests. We want our king, our priests and the old regime." They were the most destroyed by the Reign of Terror- cities that were affected by this were completely destroyed.
The Declaration of Pillnitz
This was issued by Austria and Prussia after Louis XVI was arrested after trying to flee France by the monarchs of Austria and Prussia, stated the nations' willingness to intervene in France. This was one of the documents that led to war breaking out between Austria and France. This is the document that stated that if any of the French revolutionist were to hurt the royal family that Austria would attack France and the peasants of France.
The flight of Varennes
-Louis the 16th attempts to flee to France just like the émigré to austra but he was picked up by a group of revolutionist short of the royal family's destination and they were brought to pairs and they were locked away in the Toulouse palace.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793. He was charged with treason and he was executed on January 21 1793
cahiers de doleances
Statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility. Most of these included problems with Taxation
The Estates General met in May of 1789. The three estates were made to vote separately and the first and second would obviously outvote the third. However, some priests from the First Estate came and sat with the Third Estate. The Third estate declared itself to be a National Assembly on June 17, 1789 and when Louis had the meeting hall closed to them, they moved to the Tennis Court.
People's "army" of the revolution during those early days of the Revolution. Led by Lafayette. It was like a private volunteer police force that served as the "muscle" of the revolution in the summer of '89.
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain. this group at first believed that the french government had to change but when the radical group the mountain started to kill those in the legislative assembly then the Girondists were hunted down because they went against the new government.
Committee of Public Saftey
A body, chaired by Maximilien Robespierre, to which the National Convention gave dictatorial powers in April 1793 in an attempt to deal with France's wars abroad and economic problems at home. Although the committee led off its tenure with an impressive war effort and economy-salvaging initiatives, things took a turn for the worse when Robespierre began his violent Reign of Terror in late 1793. this group ran France this government was called an oligarchy when a group of people run a government.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) period of time in France during the tyrannical rule of Robespierre; more than 40,000 people were executed during the Terror; time of no religion, dictatorship, and fear in France
(1795-1799) created by the new constitution it was the first bicameral legislature in French history. It consisted of a parliament of 500 representatives, but the majority of French people wanted to be rid of them. They habitually disregarded the terms of the constitution, and, when the elections went against them, appealed to the sword. They resolved to prolong the war because state finances had been so ruined that the government could not meet its expenses without the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries. If peace were made, the armies would return home and the directors would have to face the angry, unemployed soldiers and power hungry generals. The directors was were not supported and their general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.
Ownership class they wanted rights and to be respected so they were in favor of this revolution until Robespierre started to kill much of the french citizen because he thought that most people outside of the committee of public safety were traitors.
Levee en Masse
A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
The great fear
After an angry mob of French citizens stormed and destroyed the Bastille, a prison, rebellion spread from Paris into the countryside. From one village to the next, wild rumors circulated that the nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants. A wave of senseless panic called the Great Fear rolled through France.
storming of the Bastille
(August 1789) The revolutionary act where the Parisian militia goes to the Bastille to take ammunition. It was not really a storming - they spent the first 5 hours negotiating with the retired veteran leading the place, then somebody shoots and the militia kills off many old pensioners, dragging their heads on pikes through the streets
Olympe de Gouges
..., A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Succeeded Joseph II in 1790 and resisted please of emigres and Marie Antoinette to intervene in France. Met with King of Prussia, Frederick William II, at Pilnitz and came up with Pilnitz Declaration...
A radical political organization who called for a new form of government. Their goal was death of all supporters of the King. The King went from a monarch to a common citizen to a prisoner. He was tried for treason and sentenced to death by guillotine., A radical republican party during the French Revolution. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobins unleashed the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a one of these.
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