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Ch. 4 Cardiovascular system
Terms in this set (46)
Acts as a pump to propel the blood throughout the body via the circulatory vessels. Lies in the anterior chest within the mediastinum and is visible on chest xray.
Layers of the heart
Endocardium: innermost layer
Myocardium: Middle layer. Muscular.
Epicardium: Outermost layer. Protective covering.
Contraction of the myocardium
Relaxation of the myocardium
Located in upper portion of right atrium near SVC.
Pacemaker of the heart
Provides info on heart shape and size.
Demonstrates the great vessels and vascular changes within the lung fields.
Indicative of many cardiovascular disorders
Encompasses a group of non-invasive sonographic ultrasound procedures that provide detailed info about heart anatomy, function and vessel patency.
Uses a stationary ultrasound beam to provide an exam of the atria, ventricles, heart valves, aortic root allowing eval of left ventricle function.
Useful in accessing coronary artery disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy.
Myocardial perfusion scan
Most widely used procedure in nuc med.
Performed on pts with unknown chest pain, to evaluate coronary artery stenosis and as a follow up to bypass surgery, angioplasty or thrombolysis.
Useful in detecting regions of myocardial ischemia and scarring.
allows eval of rt and lt coronary arteries, the circumflex artery and anterior descending artery.
Possible to identify a stenotic cardiac vessel in almost 70% of cases because of CTA's ability to image soft atheroscelerotic plaque.
Evaluate cardiac mediastinal and great vessel anomalies.
Useful to eval myocardial wall thickness and chamber volumes.
Right ventricular dysplasia.
Procedure commonly used to evaluate cardiovascular disease.
Cardiac catheterization: invasive procedure specific to the heart and the great vessels.
Provides info about heart and vessel anatomy.
Intracardiac and arterial pressures are measured as catheter passes through various areas of heart.
therapeutic procedure commonly performed to open stenotic coronary vessels and place a stent in a narrowed vessel to maintain its patency.
High intensity anticoagulant is dripped over a period of hours directly onto a clot to dissolve it.
devices such as coils are used to clot off vessels.
Preceeds stent insertion.
A balloon catheter is used to open up vessel's occlusion before stent placement.
A catheter is placed in the subclavian or jugular vein and tunneled under the skin to allow for improved dialysis access.
Abnormal heart sound resulting from disturbed or turbulent flow often through malformed valves.
Common signs of heart failure: tachycardia, respiratory distress, cyanosis and weak or impalpable pulse.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Temporary vessel that is used during in utero life.
It shunts blood from pulmonary artery into systemic circulation because the pulmonary circulation is not needed during this time.
If doesn't close at birth this condition results.
Coarctation of Aorta
Narrowing of the aorta at the junction site.
Xray: two bulges of aorta are demonstrated in the aortic arch region, one superior to and one inferior to the stenosis.
A defect in the ventricular septum or the atrial septum allows the blood to be shunted between the two chambers mixing pulmonary and systemic blood.
Atrial septic defects most common congenital heart defect: detected by heart murmur.
Xray: Rt atrium and ventricles are enlarged resulting in cardiomegaly.
Ventricular Septal Defects
Involve defects between the two ventricles and are more serious because the pressure difference is greater between the ventricles than the atria.
Xray: Lt atrium and ventricle are enlarged, resulting in cardiomegaly.
Transposition of Great Vessels
the aorta arises from the Rt ventricle instead of the Lt and the pulmonary trunk arises from the left ventricle instead of the right.
Doesn't allow pulmonary and systemic subsystems to communicate.
Xray: Narrowed mediastinum because the vessels are superimposed and the main pulmonary trunk is not in the usual location.
Pulmonary congestion also visible in the lung fields.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Combo of 4 defects:
Pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta and hypertrophy of Rt ventricle.
Xray: enlargement of Rt ventricle
Abnormalities of the hearts valves often cause cardiac symptoms such as dyspnea, fatigue, syncope or chest pain and signs such as murmuring.
Most common cause of chronic valve disease.
Produces inflammatory changes within the connective tissues of the body, affecting the valves of the heart.
Caused by scarring of valve cusps that eventually adhere to one another.
Xray: calcification of the cusps of the valve and hypertrophy of the septum.
Rt ventricular enlargement is best demonstrated on lateral projection of the chest.
Congestive heart failure
Occurs when the heart is unable to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume.
May affect either side of the heart but both sides commonly affected together.
Left Sided Failure
Fluid that accumulates in the capillaries of the lungs leaks into the interstitial tissue within the lungs.
Results in: Rales and pulmonary edema.
Xray: heart in enlarged, hilar region of lungs is congested with increased vascular markings.
Right Sided Failure
Not as common as Left.
Occurs when Rt ventricle cant pump as much blood as it receives from RT atrium.
Swelling of ankles
Xray: Rt atrium and ventricle appear enlarged.
Results from a lung disorder producing hypertension in the pulmonary artery and an enlargement of the Rt ventricle of the heart.
Acute in case of pulmonary embolism
Chronic in case of COPD.
Xray: Enlargement of Rt ventricle and a proximal pulmonary artery.
Degenerative condition that affects the major arteries of the body (hardening of the arteries)
Can occur in any artery but most common aorta, coronary arteries and cerebral arteries.
Atheroma formations (fibrofatty plaques)
Coronary Artery Disease
Results from deposition of atheromas in the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle.
As plaques accumulate blood supply to heart is decreased resulting in ischemia.
MRI and CT efficient methods of diagnosing
Most commonly caused by an acute thrombus of the coronary arteries and primarily affects the left ventricle of the heart.
Signs: sudden onset of severe crushing chest pain that may radiate down left arm. Profuse sweating, SOB, nausea or vomiting.
A localized "ballooning" or outpouching of a vessel wall.
Results when vessel wall has been weakened by atherosclerotic disease, trauma, infection or congenital defects.
Xtable lateral abdomen xray shows enlargement of aorta with calcification of the vessel wall.
Surgical repair for ones larger than 6cm
Localized bulge involving one side of the arterial wall.
Usually occurs in cerebral artery.
If bulging includes entire circumference of the vessel wall.
Distal abdominal aorta
Results when the intima tears and allows blood to flow within the vessel wall thus forming an intramural hematoma.
Formation of blood clots within a vein
Commonly form in veins of lower extremeties and result from a slowing of the blood return to the heart.
Inflammation of the vein, often assoc with venous thrombosis.
Term used to specify combo of these disorders
Occurs when a blood clot forms of becomes lodged in a pulmonary artery.
Most commonly this arises from a thrombus that originiates in lower extremity, migrates to the lungs and becomes lodged there resulting in obstruction of blood supply to the lungs.
The resulting decrease in blood supply to the lungs may lead to acute respiratory distress and heart failure.
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