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Terms in this set (51)
competition is different or the same species competing for the same
competition between two different species
when you exclude a species from its resources.
a balance of population of species
an individual that plays only part of its role in a community because of competition or other types of interactions with another species
the equal conservation and consumption of resources by organisms in a given environment
When the physical characteristics of a species change over time because of resource partitioning (birds that eat larger seeds will evolve to have larger bills)
the preying of one animal on others.
One organisms living inside another and sapping its energy pathogens-a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
the eating of plants
When two or more organisms benefit from one another's actions.symbiosis-interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association
Mutualism from a distance.
Rank in feeding hierarchy.
producers or autotrophs
Organisms which produce and eat their own energy source/ food (First trophic level)
second trophic level, consumers producers (grazing animals) usually herbivores
third trophic level, consume primary consumers (wolves that prey on deer, rodents and birds that feed on grasshoppers) carnivores
Fourth trophic level, consume secondary consumer (hawks and owls that consume rodents that have eaten grasshoppers) carnivores detritivores
decomposers:consume waste products, bacteria, etc.
How does energy flow throughout trophic levels
energy transfer from 1 trophic level to next The trophic level loses 1/10 of the energy from the trophic level before it.
The way in which energy (calories) are eaten by organisms, and typically involves several patterns of complex relationships between species, with a given species eating another species.
A linear series of feeding relationships.
A species that, despite having small populations, has a great impact on the food chain or food web.
Species which can invade and destroy essential parts of the makeup of an ecosystem, such as burmese pythons in florida or zebra mussels in lake michigan
The effect of a keystone species on the other trophic levels.
An event affecting rapid environmental changes
The communities ability to resist change from a disturbance.
A community's ability to return to its original state after a disturbance.
the total mass of organisms in a given area or volume
Discuss the difference between primary and secondary succession
Primary succession follows a disturbance so severe that no life remains from the community that had occupied the site. A biotic community is built from scratch. Secondary succession begins when a disturbance dramatically alters an existing community but does not destroy all living things or organic matter in the soil
The first species to colonize a primary succession site.
Bare sand deserts where the temperature can be hot or cold and the elevation varies. Two major problems are Global warming and Off road vehicles that hurt ground animals, leave tracks in the sand for decades.
An area where oxygen is depleted, so it can no longer support life
he land area that funnels water to the bay through rivers
Consists of all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and impact in a particular area at the same time
Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback loops, explain what each is, give an example, explain how common each is in nature
A positive feedback loop is when an increased output leads to increased input which leads back to an increased output. Negative feedback loops is when a system output serves as an input to the same system. An example of a positive feedback loop is when a lake erodes due to a decrease in vegetation that causes more vegetation decreation. An example of a negative feedback loop is like sweating when you get hot. Positive feedback loops are typically due to human action and do not have a good outcome (Promotes instability.) Negative feedback loops occur most often occur in nature and promote stability.
Occurs in systems stabilized by negative feedbacks, when processes move in opposing directions at equivalent rates that their effects balance out
The tendency of a system to maintain stable conditions
characteristics not apparent based the components of the organism alone
The process of nutrient over enrichment, blooms of algae, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
net primary production
The energy that remains in an ecosystem after autotrophs have cellular respiration
Nutrients needed in large amounts such as nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Nutrients needed in small amounts such as Zinc copper and iron.
Areas where ecosystems meet and may consist of transitional zones and elements of each ecosystem.
The regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH). It is a process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions.
areas or regions where a particular organism lives.
a collection of patches over a landscape
pool or reservoir
where nutrients or materials are located
the rate of movement from a reservoir to another
the amount of time nutrients or materials are located in a pool or reservoir
The origin of a certain object
reservoir accepts more material than it releases
The Water Cycle-
When humans build dams and rivers it slows the flow of river from rivers to seas which slows the water cycle because it is not distributed. When we make more roads it takes away from the area of grass and natural land where the water can be used and returned to soil.
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