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240 terms

Nutrition Ch. 8-14

STUDY
PLAY
The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except
diabetes
There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man's waist circumference begins to exceed
40 inches
Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat
it is found in smokers more often than nonsmokers even thouhg smokers have a lower BMI
When an adult gains an extra 10 pounds of body weight, approximately how much of this weight is fat
7.5 lbs
If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age
1885 kcal
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor exercises
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men
13-21%
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
In an adult who gains 20 pounds of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue
5 lbs
Which of the following identifies a specific food intake behavior
a desire to eat without feelings of hunger is called appetite
Approximately how many people in the United States are believed to have eating disorders
5 million
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month
4 lbs
Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index
it correlates with disease risks
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as
appetite
Which of the following does no decrease the metabolic rate
fever
All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except
overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
Which of the following is a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa
binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate
amount of lean body tissue
You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)
pregnancy increases the BMR
Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass
50
Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values
it is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight
What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods
bomb calorimeter
Which of the following is a property of specific methods used to assess body fat content?
bombardment of the body with x-rays can differentiate between fat mass and lean body mass
Which of the following is a characteristic of chronic inflammation
it promotes the development of metabolic syndrome
All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories
Which of the following describes an association between body weight and mortality
overweight men who are physically fit have a lower mortality risk than normal-weight, unfit men
What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet
250 kcal
Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger
apples
Research in obese people seems to show that there is no increas in the risks for strokes and hypertension provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the
hips and thighs
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements
it is too variable to measure
All of the following are common behaviors of people afflicted with muscle dysmorphia except
use of cathartics and emetics
What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg
adaptive thermogenesis
Which of the folloing defines central obesity
storage of excess fat around the central part of the body
Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person's abdominal fat
waist circumference
A cathartic is a
strong laxative
What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat
normal
What is an emetic
a substance that induces vomiting
An emotionally insecure person might eat for all of the following reasons except
to satisfy energy needs only
Which of the following may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system
excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development
The presciption drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of
serotonin
As a new assistant in a weight loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart
leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in an individual, the best approach seems to be
genetic counseling
Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program
select less energy-dense foods
Hyperplastic obesity is related to a(n)
increase in the number of fat cells
Which of the following defines the body's set point
point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual
eat a large number of small meals
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese
2/3
Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight
5
Which of the following is the most likely explanation that environment must play a role in obesity
the rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant
To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling
60 minutes
Which of the following is characteristic of dieting and ketosis
body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories
Which of the following describes a connection between physical activity and energy expenditure
walking a mile uses about the same energy as running a mile
When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people
pyruvate
Which of the following describes the research results of obese women in weight-loss programs
they initially expected to lose unrealistic amounts of weight
All of the following are features of fat cell metabolism in men and women except
the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men
Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight
energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight
A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)
fad diet
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
18.5
What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation of leptin and ghrelin
leptin decreases while ghrelin increases
Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except
our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake
Kirima is a Native Eskimo who lives in one of the coldest regions in the world. What type of adipose tissue is most effective at helping her to maintain warm body temperatures during the coldest parts of the year
brown
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout
glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood
A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kcalories in that hour
270
Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to
nausea and diarrhea
Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss
2000
All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight except
taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly
Which of the following is a relation of "spot reducing" to exercise
no exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body
Which is not among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person
forced awakening during the night for supplemental meals and snacks
Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes
lipoprotein lipase
What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs
healthy weight
An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to
increase physical activity
What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines
compliance is better
All of the following are meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight except
they should refrain from between-meal snacking, especially energy drinks
All of the following are characteristics of the results of weight loss surgery except
medical supervision in the postsurgery period is required for only from the first 6-9 months
Clinically severe obesity is also known as
morbid obesity
Which of the folllowing is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance
differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day
Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight
a high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin
it stimulates appetite and energy storage
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance
blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
Your patient, Mr. Sinclair, has a BMI of 43 and is taking drugs to lose weight. He has heard that some drugs cause lots of gastrointestinal discomfort and would prefer to take one that doesn't give him any of these side effects. Which of the following should be prescribed for Mr. Sinclair
sibutramine
What is the significance of the uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue
increased loss of body heat
Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors
high LDL and low HDL
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year
50
A typical person who burns 200 kcalories during a 2-mile run would, in the postexercise period, burn an additional
30 kcalories
The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by affecting
serotonin utilization in the brain
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people
0.5-2 lbs/week
What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids
white adipose tissue
All of the following are sensible guidelines for diet plans except
eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food
Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
The thermic effect in people who regularly consume a high-protein diet for 10 years would, in theory, prevent them from gaining approximately how many pounds
10
The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except
a slow re-gain of the lost weight
Fraudalent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as
cellulite
What is the primary reason for the weight loss that accompanies high-protein diets
reduced energy intake
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight
1200
All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
the number decrease when fat is lost from the body
Which of the following is characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue
very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower
physical activity level
In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except
adipocyte number
The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in
the activity of lipoprotein lipase
Which of the followign is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins
tongue
Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs
folate
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C defiency
bleeding gums
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C
antioxidant agent
Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid
painful, tingling, itching sensation
Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk
vitamin A
Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body
inositol
Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition
it is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
beriberi results from a deficiency of
thiamin
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin
energy release from energy-yielding nutrients
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins
kidney
Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except
disappearance of learning disorders in children
Your brother Bob is a competitive body buider. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg whites per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not
be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease
A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is know to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin
B6
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency
inadequate absorption
All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except
excesses are eliminated from the kidneys
Which of the following is a type of neural tube defects
spina bifida
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency
80
Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate
macrocytic anemia
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells
folate
What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modes vitamin C concentrations
potatoes
What is the adult RDA for folate (mg)
400
Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12
it is efficiently recycled by the body
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12
intrinsic factor
The Wernick-Korsakoff syndrom may be treated with supplements of
thiamin
Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings
biotin
The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is
collagen
Whic of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria
biotin
Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings
choline
What is ariboflavonosis
the vitamin B2 deficiency disease
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in
dairy foods
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C
fruit group
All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except
mucosal cobalaminase
Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition
high doses may lower blood cholestrol
Research has shown that the risk of neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status
some anticancer drugs
Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin
inflamed mouth membranes
Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize
niacin
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of
vitamin B12
When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin
tryptophan
All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except
overconsumption from supplements is harmless
The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is
retinol activity equivalent
Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E
inhibition of oxidation
Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice
skin yellowing
Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of
vitamin A
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney
excessive intake of vitamin D
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis
dark-skinned people require longer sunligh exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins
deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process
light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy
intermittent claudication
To decrease the risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
4 times RDA
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for it synthesis
prothrombin
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods
most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
ergocalciferol
Which of the following compounds is know to function as a hormone
vitamin D
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
E
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D
promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
bananas
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D
exposure to sunlight
The risk for vitamin D deficiency increase with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced
absorption of dietary vitamin D
What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults
osteomalacia
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols
they are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
Which of the following provides the least amount of precursos vitamin A
corn
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions
night blindness
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people
erythrocyte hemolysis
Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A
pumpkin pie
On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units
3
In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur
those taking vitamin A supplements
Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin
E
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D
cholestrol
In Indonesia, people with a disorder termed "chicken eyes" actually suffer from
night blindness
What the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A
blindness develops
Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient
osteomalacia and rickets
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods
cholorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods
carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status
outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet
vegetable oils
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E
deficiencies occur from inabilit to absorb dietary lipids
Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the in Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition
sweet potato
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
D
What is the major source of dietary sulfur
protein
Which of the following is a major function of magnesium
catalyst in energy metabolism
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates
spinach and sweet potatoes
All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except
spastic muscles
What is the major intracellular anion
phospate
Which of the following green vegetables shows the lowest bioavailability of calcium
spinach
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition
dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
hypertension
Which of the following is a feature of potassium supplements
can cause toxicity
How does antidiuretic hormone function
it stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet
Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements
common antacids are used as a source of calcium
Aldosterone and renin each function to promote
retention of sodium
Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual
blood pressure increases as salt intake rises
Which of the following minerals would be a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount
choloride
Factors that are affective in regulating the body's water include all of the following except
adrenaline
Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person
80
Which of the following minerals is required in the enzymatic phosphoroylation of ADP
magnesium
Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium
broccoli
Normally, what is the relationship of the amount of sodium excreted to the amount ingested that day
intake and excretion are equal
What is the chief transport substance for zinc in the circulation
albumin
What dietary ratio of iron to zinc inhibits zinc absorption
greater than 2 to 1
All of the following are considered heavy metals except
iron
What is the optimal fluoride concentration in community water supplies
1 ppm
Which of the following is a feature of zinc in nutrition
pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
Which of the following compounds provides a major storage reservior for iron
ferritin
Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen
copper
Approximately how much higher is the RDA for iron for a vegetarian woman of childbearing age compared to her nonvegetarian counterpart
80%
Iron deficiency is children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes
milk
Signs of iron toxicity include all of the following except
hypochromic anemia
Which of the following is a feature of iodine in nutrition
processed foods in the United States do not use iodized salt
An enzyme in which zinc or copper is an intergral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
metalloenzyme
Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition
severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which many provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition
functional foods
Which of the following is a common example of iron contamination in the diet
using an iron skillet to scramble eggs can triple their iron content
Which of the following is a major binding protein for zinc
metallothionein
Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia
men 20-45 years of age
Low levels of blood hemoglobin most likely indicate a deficiency of
iron
What is the tolerable upper intake level for fluoride
10 mg
Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed
18
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance
except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA for physically active people compared with sendentary people
Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes
there is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat
What minimum amount of body water loss (as a percent of body weight) is likely to cause a person to collapse
7
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes
high-carbohydrate diet
What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically
mitochondria
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations
carbohydrates
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete
it stimulates fatty acid release
During a physical activity, what hormone signals the fat cells to begin releasing their fatty acids
epinephrine
What is VO2 max
an individual's maximum rate of oxygen consumption
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
45 minutes
Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness
reduced bone density
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
hypertrophy
For female endurance athletes, about how much more protein above the RDA is recommended by recognized health organizations
50-100%
A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
quarter hour
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning
Which of the following is an effect of physical fitness on fat metabolism
fatty acid concentrations in the blood rise significantly after the first 20 minutes of physical activity
Two definitive indicators of the physical fitness of older adults are strength and
walking endurance
An athlete who believes in soda loading as a means of improving performance would, right before the event, consume
sodium bicarbonate