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The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except


There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man's waist circumference begins to exceed

40 inches

Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat

it is found in smokers more often than nonsmokers even thouhg smokers have a lower BMI

When an adult gains an extra 10 pounds of body weight, approximately how much of this weight is fat

7.5 lbs

If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age

1885 kcal

External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except

outdoor exercises

What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men


The major cause of insulin resistance is related to

excess body weight

In an adult who gains 20 pounds of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue

5 lbs

Which of the following identifies a specific food intake behavior

a desire to eat without feelings of hunger is called appetite

Approximately how many people in the United States are believed to have eating disorders

5 million

What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month

4 lbs

Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index

it correlates with disease risks

After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as


Which of the following does no decrease the metabolic rate


All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except

overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance

Which of the following is a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa

binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting

Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate

amount of lean body tissue

You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure

basal metabolic rate

Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)

pregnancy increases the BMR

Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass


Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values

it is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight

What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods

bomb calorimeter

Which of the following is a property of specific methods used to assess body fat content?

bombardment of the body with x-rays can differentiate between fat mass and lean body mass

Which of the following is a characteristic of chronic inflammation

it promotes the development of metabolic syndrome

All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except

eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories

Which of the following describes an association between body weight and mortality

overweight men who are physically fit have a lower mortality risk than normal-weight, unfit men

What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet

250 kcal

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger


Research in obese people seems to show that there is no increas in the risks for strokes and hypertension provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the

hips and thighs

What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements

it is too variable to measure

All of the following are common behaviors of people afflicted with muscle dysmorphia except

use of cathartics and emetics

What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg

adaptive thermogenesis

Which of the folloing defines central obesity

storage of excess fat around the central part of the body

Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person's abdominal fat

waist circumference

A cathartic is a

strong laxative

What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat


What is an emetic

a substance that induces vomiting

An emotionally insecure person might eat for all of the following reasons except

to satisfy energy needs only

Which of the following may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system

excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development

The presciption drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of


As a new assistant in a weight loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart

leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure

Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in an individual, the best approach seems to be

genetic counseling

Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program

select less energy-dense foods

Hyperplastic obesity is related to a(n)

increase in the number of fat cells

Which of the following defines the body's set point

point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual

eat a large number of small meals

According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese


Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight


Which of the following is the most likely explanation that environment must play a role in obesity

the rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant

To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling

60 minutes

Which of the following is characteristic of dieting and ketosis

body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories

Which of the following describes a connection between physical activity and energy expenditure

walking a mile uses about the same energy as running a mile

When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people


Which of the following describes the research results of obese women in weight-loss programs

they initially expected to lose unrealistic amounts of weight

All of the following are features of fat cell metabolism in men and women except

the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men

Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight

energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight

A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)

fad diet

The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below


What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation of leptin and ghrelin

leptin decreases while ghrelin increases

Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except

our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake

Kirima is a Native Eskimo who lives in one of the coldest regions in the world. What type of adipose tissue is most effective at helping her to maintain warm body temperatures during the coldest parts of the year


What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout

glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood

A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kcalories in that hour


Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to

nausea and diarrhea

Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss


All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight except

taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly

Which of the following is a relation of "spot reducing" to exercise

no exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body

Which is not among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person

forced awakening during the night for supplemental meals and snacks

Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes

lipoprotein lipase

What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs

healthy weight

An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to

increase physical activity

What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines

compliance is better

All of the following are meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight except

they should refrain from between-meal snacking, especially energy drinks

All of the following are characteristics of the results of weight loss surgery except

medical supervision in the postsurgery period is required for only from the first 6-9 months

Clinically severe obesity is also known as

morbid obesity

Which of the folllowing is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance

differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day

Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight

a high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin

it stimulates appetite and energy storage

Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance

blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat

Your patient, Mr. Sinclair, has a BMI of 43 and is taking drugs to lose weight. He has heard that some drugs cause lots of gastrointestinal discomfort and would prefer to take one that doesn't give him any of these side effects. Which of the following should be prescribed for Mr. Sinclair


What is the significance of the uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue

increased loss of body heat

Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors

high LDL and low HDL

Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year


A typical person who burns 200 kcalories during a 2-mile run would, in the postexercise period, burn an additional

30 kcalories

The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by affecting

serotonin utilization in the brain

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people

0.5-2 lbs/week

What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids

white adipose tissue

All of the following are sensible guidelines for diet plans except

eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food

Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except

it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period

The thermic effect in people who regularly consume a high-protein diet for 10 years would, in theory, prevent them from gaining approximately how many pounds


The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except

a slow re-gain of the lost weight

Fraudalent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as


What is the primary reason for the weight loss that accompanies high-protein diets

reduced energy intake

As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight


All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except

the number decrease when fat is lost from the body

Which of the following is characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue

very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants

Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower

physical activity level

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except

adipocyte number

The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in

the activity of lipoprotein lipase

Which of the followign is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins


Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs


Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C defiency

bleeding gums

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C

antioxidant agent

Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid

painful, tingling, itching sensation

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk

vitamin A

Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body


Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition

it is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

beriberi results from a deficiency of


Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin

energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins


Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except

disappearance of learning disorders in children

Your brother Bob is a competitive body buider. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg whites per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not

be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease

A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is know to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin


What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency

inadequate absorption

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defects

spina bifida

Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency


Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate

macrocytic anemia

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells


What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modes vitamin C concentrations


What is the adult RDA for folate (mg)


Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12

it is efficiently recycled by the body

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12

intrinsic factor

The Wernick-Korsakoff syndrom may be treated with supplements of


Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings


The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is


Whic of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria


Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings


What is ariboflavonosis

the vitamin B2 deficiency disease

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C

fruit group

All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except

mucosal cobalaminase

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition

high doses may lower blood cholestrol

Research has shown that the risk of neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of


Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status

some anticancer drugs

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin

inflamed mouth membranes

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize


The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of

vitamin B12

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin


All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except

overconsumption from supplements is harmless

The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is

retinol activity equivalent

Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E

inhibition of oxidation

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice

skin yellowing

Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of

vitamin A

Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney

excessive intake of vitamin D

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis

dark-skinned people require longer sunligh exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins

deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process

light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal

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