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Sender & Receiver

She be considered by writer/speaker when planning communication

Persuasive Approach

Used if you are speaking @ a CC Call to solicit volunteers to help w/ base blood drives

Effective Purpose Statement

I understand your manpower shortages w/ this new tasking so I'd like to share a few time management techniques we used in my organization when confronted w/ the same problem


Arrange your main points & supporting ideas in visible framework


Best if used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a solution


Well suited to discuss the evolution of the enlisted force structure


The best arrangement for a base paper article about the programs the base youth center offers.

Effective Introduction

Attention Step, Purpose Statement w/ Appeal & an overview


Reinforce key points

Effective Proof Support

In his best selling book Writing Good Isn't Hard, Bob explains how the would be writer can prepare communication

Support Material

Should be based on objective facts

Paragraph Unity

All sentences support the main idea or topic sentence

Topic Sentence

Introduces a paragraph

Minor Support

Define, explain, or add proof to the major support

Major Support

Define, explain, or prove the topic sentence

Closing Sentence

Summarize the paragraph & help reader move smoothly to the next paragraph

Paragraph Coherence

Ensures a smooth flow between main points

Paragraph Coherence

Use pronouns, repeat keywords, & be consistent w/ verbs and voice


Plural nouns and requires a plural verb

Proper Pronoun Reference

Joe reads books because they are entertaining

Paragraph Unity

Critical to achieve effective paragraph development because it helps your reader look fro teh cntrolling idea given by teh topic sentence then they will look for your major or minor support material

3 Reads

Arrangement & Flow, paragraph structure--clarity & sentences, phrases & verbs


How your speech is understood


traditional utterance of words

Visual Aids

Use only materials that are related directly to your topic & use aids that are a graphical representation of your ideas

Effective Eye Contact

Is important because it lets listeners know you are interested allows you to receive non verbal feedback & enhance credibility

Eye Contact

Direct & Impartial

Good Body Movement

Catches the eye of listener, holds attention, relieve nervousness, places audience at ease, & punctuates message

Effective Body Movement

free and Purposeful

Effective Gestures

Natural & Spontaneous


Overall impression a voice makes on others


Depends on articulation, pronunciation, overuse of stock imrpession, substandard grammar

Voice fundamentals

rate, volume, force, pitch, emphasis

Arrangement & Flow

Purpose, introduction, compare intro & conclusion, page count & length , relavenace & completeness

Paragraph Structure & Clarity

Unity of Focus, Topic Sentence, Supporting Ideas

First Reading

Check for technical accuracy & coverage such as vadility o statistics & numbers

Second Reading

Check for arrangement & flow of ideas which is to compare the intro to the conclusion & ensure logical order of main poins

Third Reading

Check for readability & mechanics which ensure the correct words are used & sentences & phrases are correct and free of typo errors


Directed at behavior not the person


Positive & Negative, specific rather than general, directed @ behavior the reader can control, work on the behavior not the action

Clarification Support

Used to prevent confusion or understanding in the message

Proof Support

Adds credibility, show something true , proves or supports a point

Integrating Sources

Support material flows smoothly in our written or spoken presentation, support material logically fits within the paper or speech


Appropriate, accurate, give credit where credit is due


Primarily used as clarification support because it explains terms, jargon, acronyms & concepts.

Support Types

Definitions, examples, comparisions


Form of Support


Form of Support

Types of Comparison

Metaphor, Contrast, Simile


Figure of speech use to compare two things


Most used comparison in the military. "old vs new" , "advantage vs disadvantage"


like a metaphor but less directed it is as powerful & effective as teh metaphor

Types of Proof Support

Testimony & Statistics


Info taken rom experts or expert documentation to suport written or spoken communication.


Direct quotations or qiotations w/ omissions, paraphrase

Rules for Testimony

Use genral guidelines for support material, keep testimony brief, use it in context


Most powerful form of support & most misused. Effective for prooving a point, showing relationships & summarizing large collections of data

Type of Statistics

Ratios, percentages & raw numbers


Numerical comparison of two or more things


figure that reflects a portion of something when compared to the whole

Raw Numbers

Haven't been cooked--taken as they are

Rules of Statistics

round off, use sparingly, don't dramatize, recency, context

Quotation w/ Omissions

Shown w/ ellipsis


Fallacies, Slanted Reasoning & Emotional Appeals


draws conclusions or inferences from evidence aka thinking w/ a purpose


statement of agreement based on a false or invalid conclusion or illogical thought pattern. An unacceptable way of thinking

Slanted Reasoning

Misuse or lack of data

Slanted Reasoninig

Hasty Generalization, Faulty Dilemma, Faulty Analogy, Stacking Evidence, Loaded Questions

Hasty Generalization

occurs when a few examples are used as proof that do not or may not represent the whole

Faulty Dilemma

Employs the device of offering two alternatives, one the speaker wants us to accept & one that will never be accepted or questioned

Faulty Analogy

compares one situation w/ another, based on the assumption that what is true of simple or familiar siation is also true of a complex complicated one

Stacking Evidence

distorting or omitting important evidence to get a point across

Loaded Question

begging the question, slipping in an assertion & passing it of as an ordinary question

Name Calling

giving undesireable names to things or people you dislike

Glittering Generality

opposite of name calling, giving an admirable name to something we want others to accept

Snob or Prestige Appeal

overworked by TV commercials an attempt to have each of us seek an even higher social status

Plain Folks

opposite of snob appeal, status is looked upon w/ contempt


designed to pressure you into acccepting or rejecting things or ideas because its the thing to do

Reflection of logical thinking

Clear & purposeful communication

One Idea Per Paragraph

One horse, one rider

Topic Sentence

first in military writing

Supporting Sentence

Follows the topic sentence

Types of Supporting Sentence

Major & Minor

Types of Outline

Horizontal & Vertical

Purpose of Communication

Direct, Persuade, Entertain, Inform

Preparing Communication

Analyze Audience, Select Topic, Determine Purpose, Gather Support Material


events, processes, in sequence of time in which they take place or should take place. simple most common approach


starting @ a pint in space & proceeding in sequence to another point


Shows how one or more ideas actions conditions leads t other ideas actions conditions


pattern to identify & describe a problem or issue and then discusses possible solutions to the problem or techniques for resovling an issue


describe sequential steps necessary to complete technical procedures or process


Used to present general statemetns followed by numberd listings of subtopics to support,explain or expand


Discuss similiarties or differences between topics, concepts and ideas


used when your mission is to present research that will lead them down the path of your point of view


Summary, remotivation, closure


Include points just discussed, relates point to the objective, introduces next main point

Techniques of Organizaing Communication

Generating & Refining Ideas, choose a pattern of communication, develop intro , body, & conclusion & tranisitions

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