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97 terms

Course 14 SNCO PME Communication

STUDY
PLAY
Sender & Receiver
She be considered by writer/speaker when planning communication
Persuasive Approach
Used if you are speaking @ a CC Call to solicit volunteers to help w/ base blood drives
Effective Purpose Statement
I understand your manpower shortages w/ this new tasking so I'd like to share a few time management techniques we used in my organization when confronted w/ the same problem
Outline
Arrange your main points & supporting ideas in visible framework
Problem/Solution
Best if used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a solution
Chronological
Well suited to discuss the evolution of the enlisted force structure
Topical
The best arrangement for a base paper article about the programs the base youth center offers.
Effective Introduction
Attention Step, Purpose Statement w/ Appeal & an overview
Summary
Reinforce key points
Effective Proof Support
In his best selling book Writing Good Isn't Hard, Bob explains how the would be writer can prepare communication
Support Material
Should be based on objective facts
Paragraph Unity
All sentences support the main idea or topic sentence
Topic Sentence
Introduces a paragraph
Minor Support
Define, explain, or add proof to the major support
Major Support
Define, explain, or prove the topic sentence
Closing Sentence
Summarize the paragraph & help reader move smoothly to the next paragraph
Paragraph Coherence
Ensures a smooth flow between main points
Paragraph Coherence
Use pronouns, repeat keywords, & be consistent w/ verbs and voice
Everybody
Plural nouns and requires a plural verb
Proper Pronoun Reference
Joe reads books because they are entertaining
Paragraph Unity
Critical to achieve effective paragraph development because it helps your reader look fro teh cntrolling idea given by teh topic sentence then they will look for your major or minor support material
3 Reads
Arrangement & Flow, paragraph structure--clarity & sentences, phrases & verbs
Intelligbility
How your speech is understood
Pronunciation
traditional utterance of words
Visual Aids
Use only materials that are related directly to your topic & use aids that are a graphical representation of your ideas
Effective Eye Contact
Is important because it lets listeners know you are interested allows you to receive non verbal feedback & enhance credibility
Eye Contact
Direct & Impartial
Good Body Movement
Catches the eye of listener, holds attention, relieve nervousness, places audience at ease, & punctuates message
Effective Body Movement
free and Purposeful
Effective Gestures
Natural & Spontaneous
Quality
Overall impression a voice makes on others
Intellgibility
Depends on articulation, pronunciation, overuse of stock imrpession, substandard grammar
Voice fundamentals
rate, volume, force, pitch, emphasis
Arrangement & Flow
Purpose, introduction, compare intro & conclusion, page count & length , relavenace & completeness
Paragraph Structure & Clarity
Unity of Focus, Topic Sentence, Supporting Ideas
First Reading
Check for technical accuracy & coverage such as vadility o statistics & numbers
Second Reading
Check for arrangement & flow of ideas which is to compare the intro to the conclusion & ensure logical order of main poins
Third Reading
Check for readability & mechanics which ensure the correct words are used & sentences & phrases are correct and free of typo errors
Feedback
Directed at behavior not the person
Feedback
Positive & Negative, specific rather than general, directed @ behavior the reader can control, work on the behavior not the action
Clarification Support
Used to prevent confusion or understanding in the message
Proof Support
Adds credibility, show something true , proves or supports a point
Integrating Sources
Support material flows smoothly in our written or spoken presentation, support material logically fits within the paper or speech
Support
Appropriate, accurate, give credit where credit is due
Definitions
Primarily used as clarification support because it explains terms, jargon, acronyms & concepts.
Support Types
Definitions, examples, comparisions
Example
Form of Support
Comparision
Form of Support
Types of Comparison
Metaphor, Contrast, Simile
Metaphor
Figure of speech use to compare two things
Contrast
Most used comparison in the military. "old vs new" , "advantage vs disadvantage"
Similie
like a metaphor but less directed it is as powerful & effective as teh metaphor
Types of Proof Support
Testimony & Statistics
Testimony
Info taken rom experts or expert documentation to suport written or spoken communication.
Testimony
Direct quotations or qiotations w/ omissions, paraphrase
Rules for Testimony
Use genral guidelines for support material, keep testimony brief, use it in context
Statistics
Most powerful form of support & most misused. Effective for prooving a point, showing relationships & summarizing large collections of data
Type of Statistics
Ratios, percentages & raw numbers
Ratio
Numerical comparison of two or more things
Percentages
figure that reflects a portion of something when compared to the whole
Raw Numbers
Haven't been cooked--taken as they are
Rules of Statistics
round off, use sparingly, don't dramatize, recency, context
Quotation w/ Omissions
Shown w/ ellipsis
Reasoning
Fallacies, Slanted Reasoning & Emotional Appeals
Reasoning
draws conclusions or inferences from evidence aka thinking w/ a purpose
Fallacy
statement of agreement based on a false or invalid conclusion or illogical thought pattern. An unacceptable way of thinking
Slanted Reasoning
Misuse or lack of data
Slanted Reasoninig
Hasty Generalization, Faulty Dilemma, Faulty Analogy, Stacking Evidence, Loaded Questions
Hasty Generalization
occurs when a few examples are used as proof that do not or may not represent the whole
Faulty Dilemma
Employs the device of offering two alternatives, one the speaker wants us to accept & one that will never be accepted or questioned
Faulty Analogy
compares one situation w/ another, based on the assumption that what is true of simple or familiar siation is also true of a complex complicated one
Stacking Evidence
distorting or omitting important evidence to get a point across
Loaded Question
begging the question, slipping in an assertion & passing it of as an ordinary question
Name Calling
giving undesireable names to things or people you dislike
Glittering Generality
opposite of name calling, giving an admirable name to something we want others to accept
Snob or Prestige Appeal
overworked by TV commercials an attempt to have each of us seek an even higher social status
Plain Folks
opposite of snob appeal, status is looked upon w/ contempt
Bandwagon
designed to pressure you into acccepting or rejecting things or ideas because its the thing to do
Reflection of logical thinking
Clear & purposeful communication
One Idea Per Paragraph
One horse, one rider
Topic Sentence
first in military writing
Supporting Sentence
Follows the topic sentence
Types of Supporting Sentence
Major & Minor
Types of Outline
Horizontal & Vertical
Purpose of Communication
Direct, Persuade, Entertain, Inform
Preparing Communication
Analyze Audience, Select Topic, Determine Purpose, Gather Support Material
Chronological
events, processes, in sequence of time in which they take place or should take place. simple most common approach
Spatial/Geographical
starting @ a pint in space & proceeding in sequence to another point
Cause/Effect
Shows how one or more ideas actions conditions leads t other ideas actions conditions
Problem/Solution
pattern to identify & describe a problem or issue and then discusses possible solutions to the problem or techniques for resovling an issue
Sequential
describe sequential steps necessary to complete technical procedures or process
Topical
Used to present general statemetns followed by numberd listings of subtopics to support,explain or expand
Comparison/Contrast
Discuss similiarties or differences between topics, concepts and ideas
Reasoning/Logic
used when your mission is to present research that will lead them down the path of your point of view
Conclusion
Summary, remotivation, closure
Transitions
Include points just discussed, relates point to the objective, introduces next main point
Techniques of Organizaing Communication
Generating & Refining Ideas, choose a pattern of communication, develop intro , body, & conclusion & tranisitions