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Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology introduced by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper; A Theory of Human Motivation; this theory was fully expressed in his book, Motivation and Personality. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before an individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.


Motivation that goes beyond the scope of basic needs into a strive for constant betterment

Deficiency needs

Includes physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, and esteem needs

Being needs

Includes self-actualization needs and self-trancendence needs

Physiological needs

Needs that are required for basic human survival including: air, water, food, clothing, and shelter

Safety needs

Includes the need to feel personally secure from harm; also includes the need for financial security, health and well-being, and safety against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

Love and belonging needs

Involves the need to feel a sense of belonging through friendship, intamacy, and family

Esteem needs

Involves the need to be accepted and valued by others; also includes the need for self-respect


A need that pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential


Going beyond a prior form or state of oneself

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