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AP Gov Unit 1
Terms in this set (56)
An essay which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
Brutus No. 1
An Anti-Federalist essay which argued against a strong central government based on the belief that it would not be able to meet the needs of all US citizens.
US v. Lopez
Ruled that gun laws about schools are not related to interstate commerce and not under federal authority
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Advocated for absolute sovereignty as it is the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings
enlightenment thinker, believed in three branches of government (separation of power) ARTICLES I, II, and III
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property; DECLARATION, CONSTITUTION, 5th & 4th AMENDMENTS
Believed that free people should neglect their natural rights in order to find protection and freedom under one body republic; popular sovereignty (sole control from the people); PREAMBLE
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution
Opponents of the American Constitution
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
A plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Great (Connecticut) Compromise
Senate: 2 per state
House: by population
Rebellion led by farmers protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
Process to Amend the Constitution
Require 2/3rd vote in both houses of congress and ratification from 3/4th of the states
A theory of democracy in which a small group of highly-educated and wealthy individuals make decisions on policy
A theory of democracy in which organized groups advocate and compete to decide on legislation
a system of democracy in which citizens have the power to influence policy decisions and politicians implement these policies
Powers directly stated in the constitution
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
Powers given to the state government alone (10th amendment)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments
Constitution is the supreme law of the land
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Constitution's requirement that each state accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner
The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case decided that regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Cooperation among federal, state, and local governments; "marble cake" federalism
Federal-state relationship proposed by Reagan administration; government is returning administrative powers back to the states.
Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
Movement that gives state officials significant leeway in acting on issues normally considered national in scope, such as the environment and consumer protection.
Money given to states for general programs within a broad category
Funds provided for a specific and clearly defined purpose.
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states with federal funds to support them
Regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars and limits for release of air pollutants
Americans with Disabilities Act
This act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings.
Article I, Section 8
Enumerated powers of Congress (necessary and proper clause)
Article I, Section 9
-Powers denied to Congress
-no regulating slave trade before 1808
-states to be treated uniformly
Article 1, Section 10
Powers denied to the states
-Full faith and credit clause
-privileges and immunities
Supremacy of the National Government
Rights not listed reserved by the people
Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved for the states
Failures of the Articles of Confederation
-Only one vote per state, regardless of its size
-No power to regulate commerce or trade between the states
-national gov't didn't have power to tax. Revenue comes from states
-Couldn't force states to obey its laws (taxation was ignored)
-No national army or navy
-No national courts
-Each state has own paper money
-No pres., lacked strength and solid leader
-No power to raise money to pay for action against border encroachments
-Any changes to Articles required unanimous vote leading to long delays in implementation
Advantages of Federalism
-Avoids concentration of power
-Allows states to make their own policies to reflect their needs
Disadvantages of Federalism
-Complexity: there are many governments to deal with
-Duplication of offices and functions
-Inconsistency from state to state in regulations, education, etc.
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