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AP Euro Chapter 4 IDs
Terms in this set (78)
Louis XIV, intrigued by secret alliances with republicans in Holland and royalists in England, wanted to achieve his goal: the union of France and Spain into the "Grand Monarchy."
Another name for Louis XIV, a.k.a Louis the Great, Grand Monarque
Under the "Sun King," French
language, thought, literature, architecture, clothing, food, and etiquette set the standards for Europe.
Charles II of Spain
Inherited Spanish throne while country was in social and economic decline - was unfortunate man afflicted by many ills of mind and body due to Habsburg inbreeding
Free Country of Burgundy, a French-speaking region lying between ducal Burgundy and Switzerland
A political situation in which one state might subordinate all others to its will
Estates-General of the United Provinces
Official name of Dutch government
Dutch author of Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise of international law. One of the creators of international law
Those who favored a modification of Calvinism in the Netherlands, with a toning down of the doctrine of absolute and unconditional predestination
Treaty of Nimwegen
Peace was signed between Netherlands and France in 1678, although at the expense of Spain, as they were forced to give up Franche Comte to France. Major victory for Dutch naval power and commerce.
English Navigation Act of 1651
Established by England and aimed against the Dutch carrying trade
Great Dutch scientist that worked mainly in physics and mathematics
Anna Marie van Schurman
Extraordinarily learned scholar and artist that developed an important 17th-century argument for the education of women in her influential treatise "The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May be a Scholar"
Dutch painter that created "Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window" and "The Learned Artist's Studio"
Each province had a stadtholder, but most provinces usually elected the Prince of Orange in emergencies. Normally the burghers ran the government, keeping Holland decentralized
Successor to William II as stadholder of house of Orange. William III of Orange (1650-1702) was a grave, reserved, Dutch Calvinist who lived plainly, hated flattery; he married Mary, Protestant daughter of James II Stuart.
Man from family of refugee Portuguese Jews that turned out works of philosophy examining the nature of reality, human conduct, and church vs state - first modern philosopher
Bank of Amsterdam
Backed by the Dutch government, made Holland the financial center of world: allowing deposit of "mixed money" and issuing notes for florins--soon the main international currency, and innovative use of checks and guaranteed deposits
House of Orange
Royal family that ruled the Netherlands. Played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands, especially since William I of Orange organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state.
Puritans rebelled and asserted the rights of Parliament against the mounting claims of royalty in England - regarded the Reformation of the Church of England under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship.
Form of church government developed by Swiss and Rhineland Reformers during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation.
John Calvin believed that the system of church government used by him and his associates in Geneva, Strassburg, Zürich, and other places was based upon the Bible and the experience of the church.
Anglicanism, one of the major branches of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and a form of Christianity that includes features of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism.
Charles I dissolved the hostile parliament and called for new elections, in which the same people returned. Resulting body, which stayed for 20 years between 1640 and 1660, was known as Long Parliament. Leaders were landowning gentry. Supported by merchant class.
Solemn League and Covenant
Adopted by Parliament during the war against the King's army. Prescribed that the religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland should be made uniform. Presbyterianism became established legal religion of 3 kingdoms.
Fifth Monarchy Men
Millennial group that felt the end of the world was at hand. Believed that history has seen four empires according to Bible (Assyria, Persia, Alexander, Caesar) and fifth was at hand, ruled by Christ, in which justice would rule.
Religious adviser to King Charles I of Great Britain. His persecution of Puritans and other religious dissidents resulted in his trial and execution by the House of Commons.
Court through which the discretionary powers, privileges, and legal immunities reserved to the sovereign were exercised. Prerogative courts were originally formed during the period when the monarch exercised greater power than Parliament.
New party in England that were numerous in Puritan army. Appealed to natural rights and the rights of Englishmen, asks for nearly universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, a written constitution, subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of voters.
More ephemeral group that occupied and cultivated common lands in a general repudiation of property.
Founded by George Fox, also known as the Society of Friends. Insisted that all believers could have new revelations of spiritual truth by rejecting social and religious hierarchies and allowing women to preach at meetings.
English Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church of England and form independent local churches. They were eventually called Congregationalists. Separatists were most influential politically in England during the time of the Commonwealth (1649-60) under Oliver Cromwell, the lord protector, who was himself a Separatist. Subsequently, they survived repression and gradually became an important religious minority in England.
Operation the reduced the Long Parliament to just 50 members and made it weak, named after Colonel Pride who commanded the soldiers by whom Parliament were intimidated.
The remaining 50 or 60 members of the Long Parliament, after Cromwell had driven out nearly 100 (started with 500 in 1640)
James VI of Scotland
Inherited the English crown after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603. Was the son of Mary Stuart. Since he was descendant of Henry VII, he also became king of England (James I). Was a philosopher of royal absolutism.
Thought of as foreigner - "wisest fool in Christendom"
Was in constant need of money due to wars against Spain
The True Law of Free Monarchy
Book written by James. By free monarchy, he meant a monarchy free from control of parliament, churchmen, or laws and customs of the past. King - as father of people - looked after their welfare. Declared kings drew authority from God.
The parliamentary forces, called Roundheads from the close haircuts favored by Puritans.
Instrument of Government
Cromwell attempted to govern as Lord Protector through representative bodies devised by himself and followers under the constitution called the Instrument of Government.
Took over after Cromwell's son failed. Was son of Charles I. Became king of England and Scotland. Inclined to Catholicism.
Former Puritans that now refused to accept the restored Church of England. Excluded by Parliament from town corporations or governing bodies. Prevented meetings or from teaching at school.
William and Mary
Mary was offered the throne of England rather than James II's catholic son. She was his grown daughter, and was born and brought up a Protestant before her father's conversion to Rome. Her husband was William (III) of Orange.
Battle of the Boyne
Army of Dutchmen, Germans, Scots, and French Huguenots under William III defeated the French and Irish forces led by James II.
Bill of Rights
Enacted by Parliament in 1689, declared that no law could be suspended by the king (like Test Act had been), no taxes could be raised or army maintained without Parliamentary consent, no subject could be arrested without legal process.
Supporters of King Charles II and his successor (brother) James (Charles had no children). Suspicious of "moneyed interest" of London. Loyal to church and king.
The Seven Bishops of the Church of England were those imprisoned and tried for seditious libel over their opposition to the second Declaration of Indulgence issued by James II in 1688. They were found not guilty.
Events of 1688. Portrayed as vindicating the principles of parliamentary government, the rule of law, and even the right of rebellion against tyranny.
Act of Settlement of 1701
Declared that no Catholic could be king of England, excluding descendants of James II (known in following century as Pretenders).
Toleration Act of 1689
Allowed Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion but still excluded them from political life and public service.
Penal Code for Ireland
Catholic clergy were banished, and Catholics were forbidden to vote or sit in Irish parliament. Catholics forbidden to teach, catholic parents forbidden to send children overseas to catholic schools. Couldn't take degrees at colleges. Couldn't own land. Couldn't own horse worth more than 5 pounds. Export forbidden. Only thing left that was Irish was export of agricultural produce.
United Kingdom of Great Britain
Created in 1707 after Scots joined England. Scotland retained own legal system and established Presbyterian church, but government and parliament was merged with England. "British: came about as a term.
Treaty of Dover
Treaty of Dover, (1670), pact by which Charles II of England promised to support French policy in Europe in return for a French subsidy that would free him from financial dependence on Parliament. King agreed to pay Charles 3 million livres a year during the war.
Declaration of Indulgence
Charles II announced the non-enforcement of laws against Dissenters. Wanted to promote tolerance.
Parliament's retort to Charles II promoting tolerance. Required all officeholders to take communion in the Church of England. Renewed the legislation against Dissenters. Made it possible for Catholics to serve in government or army/navy.
The excursionists who were generally most suspicious of the king, Catholics, and the French. Developed strong movement in Parliament to exclude James by law from throne (Catholic). Supported by upper aristocracy and middle class.
There were about a dozen bodies known as parlements (spelled like this in French to distinguish from England), which unlike England had developed as courts of law, each being the supreme court for a certain area of the country. Upheld certain "fundamental laws" that a king could not overstep.
An abortive revolution that broke out immediately after the Peace of Westphalia while Louis XIV was a child, directed against Cardinal Mazarin. Led by the parlements and nobility which were to initiate great French Revolution of 1789.
First minister of France after Cardinal de Richelieu's death in 1642. During the early years of King Louis XIV, he completed Richelieu's work of establishing France's supremacy among the European powers and crippling the opposition to the power of the monarchy at home.
Principal theorist in the time of Louis XIV of idea that law and force within a country should be monopolized by lawful king (absolutism). Advanced old Christian teaching that all power comes from God and those that hold power are responsible to God how they use it.
Five Great Farms
Colbert managed to reduce internal tarrifs in a large part of central France. He set up a tariff union entitled the Five Great Farms. Became one of the largest free-trade areas in Europe, equaling size of England.
Louis XIV developed a strong system of administrative coordination in intendants, who represented councils of state throughout the country. Each intendant embodied all aspects of royal government - keeping eye on taxes, nobility, twons/guilds, hereditary officeholders, marketplaces, famine, local law courts
Councils of State
Louis ran France through Councils of State, using "intendants" to represent these councils through the country. He personally attended the councils.
Indirect taxes in France were collected by private concessionaires called tax farmers, who made substantial profits.
Worked for 20 years to make France economically powerful. Went beyond Richelieu in the application of mercantilism, aiming to make France a self-sufficing economic unit, to expand export of goods, increase wealth from which gov. income was drawn.
Leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. His work is characterized by clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color.
Colbert replaced much of local customary law with a new model of business practice and regulation in the Commercial Code.
French East India Company
Established by Colbert - the French trading companies established in the 17th and 18th centuries to oversee French commerce with India, eastern Africa, and other territories of the Indian Ocean and the East Indies.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Removed idea of religious tolerance of Huguenots in France. Began mass persecution, made life for them unbearable. 100,000s protestants left France (severe blow to French economic life). Embarked on century of intolerance.
Divine Right of Kings
Doctrine affirming the divine rights of kings. King's power was absolute but no arbitrary because it must be reasonable and just like the will of God. Absolute because it was free from dictation by parlements, estates. Law was will of sovereign king, conformed to will of God.
Monument of worldly splendor, built under rule of Louis XIV, ten miles from Paris (similar to El Escorial). Palace became marvel of Europe and envy of lesser kings. Public building, mostly for government purposes.
"The Pyrenees Exist No Longer"
Word that went out at Versailles after Louis XIV accepted control of Spain in the name of his 17-year-old grandson. The Pyrenees are the mountain range separating France from Spain.
Treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt
In 1713 and 1714, established peace between Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance. Partitioned the world of Spain. English took Gibraltar and Minorca, Duke of Savoy gained Sardinia, Spanish (Austrian) Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Sicily passed to Austrian Habsburgs.
Although the English sent relatively few troops to the Continent, they produced in John Churchill (Duke of Marlborough) a preeminent military commander for the Allied forces.
Peace of Ryswick
Settled war of League of Augsburg. Louis agreed to peace at Ryswick in the Netherlands in 1697, ending the War of the League of Augsburg, leaving things basically where they had began. Eventual disposition of whole Spanish empire was still unsettled, Charles II continued to live.
Grand Alliance of 1701
Political balance in Europe was threatened. William III gathered the stunned diplomats into the last of his coalitions, the Grand Alliance of 1701. He died next year, but launched the engine that was to crush the Sun King. Included England, Holland, and Austrian emperor. Supported by Brandenburg, Portugal, Italian duchy of Savoy.
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Leader of Austrian forces (part of Grand Alliance).
British extorted from Spain the commercial privalege of the asiento - granted the lucrative privilege of providing Spanish America with African slaves. It provided opportunities for illicit trade in nonhuman cargoes. Liverpool and Bristol were to be built on slave trade.
Philip V of Spain
Grandson of Louis XIV that was confirmed as king of Spain, on the understanding that French and Spanish thrones should never be inherited by the same person. Bourbons reigned in Spain from Philip V through to republican revolution of 1931.
The first goal failed when Louis was blocked in both the War of Devolution of 1667 and the "Dutch War" of 1672, both time halted by alliances put together by the Dutch. However, the peace treaty gave France the Franche-Comte, long a Habsburg thorn in France's side.
War of the League of Augsburg
League of Augsburg comprised of HRE, Dutch, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, Palatinate, and later England. War broke out in 1688. French army won battles but could not overpower combined fleets of Dutch and English. Louis found himself badly strained and made peace at Ryswick in Netherlands in 1697.
Dutch received guarantees of their security, were granted the right to garrison the "Dutch Barrier," a string of forts in Belgium on the side toward France. Dutch never again played a primary role in European political affairs.
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