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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
250 Things Every AP Student Should Know About US History
Terms in this set (250)
First PermanentEnglish Settlement, John Smith, tabacco
First Africans brought to Virginia, 1619
through crowded ships, indentured servants
Mayflower Compact, 1620
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony, It was signed on November 11, 1620 (OS) by 41 of the ship's one hundred and two passengers, in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod.
Great Migration of Puritans to Massachusetts, 1630s and 1640s
moved for religion reasons- largest in the 19th century
Roger Williams established Rhode Island, 1636
after being banned from Boston, Massachusetts for his expression against jurisdiction of the state, Later in creating a settlement ihe called Providence
William Penn established Pennsylvania, 1681
Quaker; Proprietary colony; religious freedom; Good relations w/Indians
Salem witch trials, 1692
accussed women of witchcraft- some burened- religious hysteria
James Oglethorpe established Georgia, 1732
Buffer against Spanish Florida. Recruited debtors. Unsuccessful for awhile b/c he was strict
Jonathan Edwards sparked the Great Awakening, 1734
Started by publishing of many books that were revival. oversaw some of the first fires of revival in 1733-1735 at his church in Northampton, Massachusetts
The French and Indian War, 1754-63
a war between French and Indians against Americans
Proclamation of 1763
Banned settlement west of Appalachian Mts. Supported by many Indians
Stamp Act, 1765-66
act that put taxes on all paper documents
Declaratory Act, 1766
reasserted Britains power over colonies, response to Boston Tea Party
Townshend Acts, 1767
Tax on tea, glass, and paper. Passed around the times of the other "Intolerable Acts"
Boston Tea Party, 1773
Colonists (Sons of Liberty) upset about Tea Act disguised as Native Americans
First Continental Congress, 1774
Delegates from every colony except Georgia to decide how to react to the Intolerable Acts
Lexington and Concord, 1775
site of first fighting of the American Revolution; Paul Revere and William Dawes warned
Second Continental Congress, 1775
as a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine published Common Sense, 1776
challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Declaration of Independence, 1776
signed by Thomas Jefferson
Treaty of Alliance, 1778
Pact between French and American Revolutionaries
Battle of Yorktown, 1781
was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces over a British Army. , it proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America,
Articles of Confederation went into effect, 1781
was the first written constitution of the United States of America and specified how the national government was to operate. It was drafted in 1776-77 and became the working constitution, although it was not formally ratified until 1781.
Peace of Paris, 1783
Ends American Revolution. Britain still holds land in North America: French Canada and Spanish Florida. Spain gets Russia
Northwest Ordinances of 1784, 1785, and 1787
Set up plans for how new states would enter the union. One of few successes of Articles of Confederation (AOC).
Shays' rebellion, 1786-87
Farmers in MA rebel. Reveal how weak the gov't was to put down rebellions under AOC
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, 1787
Adopted the Constitution of the U.S. Replaced the AOC (they were too weak)
The Federalist Papers published, 1787-88
are a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. It remains a primary source for interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, as the essays outline a lucid and compelling version of the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government.
Creation of a new government, 1789
Replacing the Articles of Confederation. Constitution was ratified.
Alexander Hamilton appointed Secretary of the Treasury, 1789
President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury when the first Congress passed an act establishing the Treasury Department. Hamilton served in that post from September 11, 1789, until January 31, 1795.
Samuel Slater established first textile mill, 1790
Cotton-spinning technology led to business boom during the embargo when America wasn't trading with Britain
Bill of Rights, 1791
1st 10 amendmentss of the Constitution
Cotton gin, 1793
s a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job formerly performed by hand., Eli Whitney
34. Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
Stated in his farewell address. U.S. should not get in "foreign entanglements." Guided U.S. at various times in history.
35. Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
was a resistance movement in what was the western part of the U.S in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was in western dissatisfaction with various policies of the eastern-based national government. The name from a 1791 excise tax on whiskey that was a grievance of the westerners.
Washington's Farewell Address, 1796
was written to .."The People of the United States" near the end of his second term as President of the United States and before his retirement to his home at Mount Vernon.
XYZ Affair, 1797-98
Controversy when French ministers requested bribes to enter negotiations. Almost led to war between US and France
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
Authorized gov't to imprison or expel those writing against the gov't. Controversial b/c it violates Bill of Rights.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 1798-1799
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison against Alien and Sedition Acts. Set up nullification doctrine.
Election of 1800
Thoma Jefferson is elected President of the United States.
Midnight judges, 1801
Controversy during Jefferson's presidency. He attempted to remove Federalist judges. Led to Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Judicial Review - Supreme Court can declare laws and presidential decisions unconstitutional.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
the acquisition by the United States of America of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. What was purchased was France's claim only, not the actual territory, which belonged to the tribes which inhabited the area. Napoleon Bonaparte
Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804
Led by Sacagawea; commissioned by Jefferson after purchased Louisiana Territory
Trial of Aaron Burr, 1807
Shot and killed Alexander Hamilton. Tried for treason for trying to get Mexico and Louisiana for his own rule
Jefferson's embargo, 1807
Alternative to war with Britain following attacks on the American ship the Chesapeake; The stop in trade hurt America's economy, but wasn't effective against GB
War of 1812, 1812-1815
was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire.The Americans declared war in 1812 for a number of reasons, including a desire for expansion into the Northwest Territory, trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, and the humiliation of American honour.
Hartford Convention, 1814
New England states almost seceded from the Union over the War of 1812. Federalists labeled as unpatriotic.
Treaty of Ghent, 1814
Ended the War of 1812. Did not address grievances that led to the war (stalemate for both sides).
Battle of New Orleans, 1815
Fought after the war of 1812 ended (signing of Treaty of Ghent). Also opened up new lands to settlers.
The American System, 1815
Henry Clay's economic plan for America. Government adopted tariffs and national bank, but rejected call for internal improvements (said it was unconstitutional)
Era of Good Feelings, 1817-25
was a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated. It lasted approximately from 1816 to 1824, during the administration of U.S. President James Monroe, who deliberately downplayed partisanship.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Adams-Onís Treaty, 1819
was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain
Missouri Compromise, 1820
was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30' north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
56. First Lowell factory opened 1823
beginning of the factory system in America. Encouraged growth of financial businesses. First opportunity for some women to work
57. Monroe Doctrine, 1823
is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
58. Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825, after the election was decided by the House of Representatives
59. Indian Removal Act, 1830
was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830
60. Maysville Road Veto, 1830
Jackson vetoed it because it would use federal funding for a state project (Congress can only fund interstate projects)
61. Nat Turner's revolt, 1831
Led band of slaves. They killed some white people and were put down. Gave hope to AA.
62. Nullification Crisis, 1832-33
was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
63. Jackson destroyed the Bank of the United States, 1833-36
Renewal of the 2nd Bank was vetoed on Nov 24, 1832 by Andrew Jackson & slowly declined until the expiration of its charter in 1836
64. Panic of 1837
- Jackson's decision not to recharter the National Bank caused a huge panic when bank after bank closed
65. Horace Mann began school reform in Massachusetts, 1837
It was not until he was appointed secretary (1837) of the newly created board of education of Massachusetts (the first such position in the United States) that he began the work which was to place him in the foremost rank of American educationists
66. Trail of Tears, 1838
Jackson's Indian Removal Act pushed Indians to settle in OK. Millions died.
67. Election of 1840
William Harrison is elected president of the United States.
68. The term "manifest destiny" first used, 1845
was the 19th century American belief that the United States notes, was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic Seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century.
69. Annexation of Texas, 1845
was the annexation of the Republic of Texas to the United States of America as the 28th state. This act quickly led to the Mexican-American War
70. Mexican-American War, 1846
was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution
71. Mormons migrated to Utah, 1847-48
Proposal to ban slavery in the territories gained from Mexico (did not pass)
72. Seneca Falls convention, 1848
Branch of Christianity that was very persecuted. Moved from NY to Missouri to Utah b/c of violence.
73. Mexican Cession, 1848
Beginning of women's rights movement (suffrage). 19th Amendment 1920.
74. California gold rush, 1849
is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in 1848, excluding the areas east of the Rio Grande, which had been claimed by the Republic of Texas, though the Texas Annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified Texas' southern and western boundary.
75. Wilmot Proviso, 1849
when gold was found by James W. Marshall, The gold-seekers, called "Forty-niners
76. Compromise of 1850
Compromise concerning slavery that allowed Calidornia to enter as free state and the slave trade to be banned in Washingston D.C, while enforcing the Fugitive Slave Law and leaving people in the Mexico and Utah territory todecide whether to allow slavery
77. Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852
Influentila book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that showed the cruelty of slavery
78. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
A law that allowed for the peope in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories to decide whether or not to allow slavery
79. Creation of the Republican Party, 1854
to combat the threat of slavery's extension to the territories, and to promote more vigorous modernization of the economy. It had little presence in the South, but in the North it enlisted most former Whigs, Know-Nothings and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every state.
80. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857
Dred Scott argued that his period of residence on free soil mad him a free citizen. The Supreme Court disagreed with him.
81. Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858
series of debates between Abrahan Lincoln and Stephen Douglas for the Senate seat of Illnois. Douglas won reelection for his Senate seat.
82. John Brown's raid, 1859
Led a band to raid Harper's Ferry which was a federal arsenal. He planned to arm Virginia's slaves. Made South think the North was determined to end slavery.
83. Election of 1860
Abrahan Linoln is electef for President of the United States.
84. Southern secession, 1860-61
after lincolns win, South Carolina seceded for the Unioon. Within six weeks many other Southern states would secede thereby creating the Confederate States of America.
85. Fort Sumter, 1861
Def: a fort controlled by federalists but claimed by the South before Civil War and when Lincoln sent in provisions the South attcked and the Civil Was began. Sig: started the Civil War and united Northereners for patriotic reasons.
86. Homestead Act, 1862
Def: promoted settlement to the Great Plains by offering parcels of 160 acres of public land for free as long as you farm the land for at 5 years. Sig: encouraged western settlement to stimulate economy
87. Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862
Def: encouraged states to use the sell of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges. Sig: stimulate economy and maintain educated farming practices.
88. Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
Def: Lincoln decreed slaves to be free to maintain foriegn alliances and increase domestic support for the was; did not free slaves. Sig: maintained British- Northern alliance and increased fighting moral.
89. Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg, 1863
Def: Vicksburg- to take back all of the Misssissippi River for the South the North fought a 7 week battle and won cutting the South in half. Gettysburg- a plan by Lee to capture a Union army or city to force peace which led to battle; the bloodiest battle in which the South retreated. Sig: North had control of trade and split the South in half cutting of supplies; destroyed the South's army and led to Lee's destruction at Appamattox.
90. Appomattox Court House, 1865
Def: after the fall of Richmond Lee escaped with lass than 30 000 of his men to Appottmox where he was forced to surrender to Grant who let all the men go home. Sig: officially ended the Civil War.
91. Abraham Lincoln assassinated, 1865
Def: while attending Ford's theatre in DC John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln and a coconspirator wounded Secretary of Stated William Seward. Sig: upset North with South even more and left country with bad leadership.
92. Freedman's Bureau, 1865
Def: a new agency created by congress which helped misplace blacks and whites; provide food, shelter, land, and education. Sig: helped many blacks and increased blakc education drastically.
93. Thirteenth Amendment, 1865
Def: abolished any kind of servitude officially and forever. Sig: actually freed slaves.
94. Purchase of Alaska, 1867
Def: claimed by Russia and England; Russia had settlement but became burden and wished to sell to Seward and Senate because of Russia's support during war voted to buy it at 7.2 million. Sig: would not have great signifcance until much later.
95. Radical Reconstruction began, 1867
Def: through Reconstruction acts the congress put the South in military ocupation and required readmitted states to ratify the 14 amendment and give the right to vote for all. Sig: made readmission more difficult and upset the south even more.
96. Andrew Johnson impeachment trial, 1868
Def: Radicals passed a law that banned the removal of officers unless ok'ed by the Senate; Johnson removed Secretary of State and was impeaced for "11 misdemeannors" and lost by one vote. Sig: first impeachment and ended Johnson's term.
97. Fourteenth Amendment, 1868
Def: said everyone born in America is a citizen has "equal protection" and "due process"; banned confedrates from office took money and land from Confederates and voting. Sig: made states uphold new amendments and gave more rights to all.
98. Transcontinental railroad completed, 1869
Def: the Union PAcific and Central Pacific Railroad companies used Chinese Irish Utah. Sig: connected rugged West with industrial East
99. Standard Oil created, 1870
Def: buying out and controlling oil rockefellor took hold of the oil trade and formed board of trustees. Sig: had hold on oil prices and could raise or lower at his whim.
100. Knights of Labor created, 1869
Def: began as secret society to avoid detection; led by Terence Powderly; advocated work cooperatives abollition of child labor and monopolies; didn't advocate violence. Sig: May Day labor movement; increased Union members.
101. Wyoming gave women the right to vote, 1870
Def: Wyoming was the first state to allow female suffrage Sig: other states soon followed.
102. Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876
Def: battle between Sioux and U.S. government in which Colonel George Custer and won. Sig: made many tribes comply with state terms.
103. Election of 1876
Def: after a very close vote a bargain was made between Hayes (Republican) and the Democratic candidate which included taking Federal troops out of the South. Sig: ended Reconstruction.
104. Great Railroad Strike, 1877
Def: one of the worst strike outbreaks in which Baltimore and Ohio railroad workers striked and gained momentum with 500,000 people in 11 states. Sig: after the stirke was put down some employers increased wages and/or bettered working conditions to prevent another strike.
105. Chief Joseph surrendered, 1877
Def: an attempt by their leader to take the Nez Pierce to Canada away from the U.S. army; it was defeated. Sig: constant pressure made tribe after tribe comply with state and federal laws.
106. James Garfield assassinated, 1881
Def: Garfield allowed a lot of halfbreeds to gain Federal jobs; one day while going to a train a deranged halfbreed who was not allowed a job shot him. Sig: Garfield died and Chester Arthur became President.
107. Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee institute, 1881
Def: a fromer slave who proposed and made an industrial and agricultural college where blacks could learn new skills and how to survive economically in the world; made in Tuskegee, Alabama. Sig: educated many blacks in order for them to survive and support thier familied in the real world.
108. Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
Def: placed a ban on Chinese immigrants. Sig: restricted Chinese immigrants and other nationalities.
109. Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883
Def: created a system, in which applicants for federal jobs would be chosen on scores from and exam; also excluded civil servants from being politicians.
110. Haymarket Square Riot, 1886
Def: a strike at McCormick's Harvester had all the strikers go to a meeting at Haymarket Square where knights of labor were present as well as anasrchists who threw a bomb. Sig: made many people think all unions were bad and many dispersed.
111. American Federation of Labor created, 1886
Def: led by Samuel Gompers who only advocated practical economic changes by peaceful walkouts. Sig: was the biggest union but made no drastic impacts till the early 1900's.
112. Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Def: a way which the federal government could seperate and civilize native americans; it provided 160 acres to a family and U.S. citizenship. Sig: reservation land was sold and indians were devastated by disease.
113. Jane Addams founded Hull House, 1887
Def: houses were built to teach english to immigrants taught childhood education industrial arts and established nieghborhood schools. Sig: the basis of future social workers and advocated many reforms.
114. The "Gospel of Wealth" 1889
Def: a religious belief which preached the wealthy are wealthy because they are in God's favor and everyone can become rich. Sig: oushed many billionaires to become philanthropic.
115. Jacob Riis published How the Other Half Lives, 1890
Def: composed of articles on tenement life; he was the first photojournalist. Sig: was a muckracker and informed people about the bad living conditions of the cities.
116. Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890
Def: meant to break up trusts by banning any form of trusts or conspiraciesto control trade or commerce. Sig: it was too vague and did not apply to manufacturers which had little effect.
117. Wounded Knee massacre, 1890
Def: a battle between the U.S. army and the Sioux indians known as the ghost dance movement and 200 indians were gunned down in the Dakotas. Sig: ended the indian battles.
118. Ellis Island opened, 1892
Def: opened on the east coast in order to process and examine new immigrants. Sig: restricted immigrants and made a barrier between the U.S. and the immigrants.
119. Homestead Strike, 1892
Def: the government gave 160 acres to anyone who farmed the land for at least 5 years. Sig: encourage western settlement.
120. Panic of 1893
Def: caused by the corrupt railroad companies who fixed rates. Sig: 7 men controlled all the railroad lines and made the railroads more efficient.
121. Pullman Strike, 1894
Def: Pillman cut wages and would not negotiate as a result Eugene Debs told workers to strike companies then forced the government to help and an injunction was given to stop the strikes but many strikers were arrested. Sig: showed how companies controlled the country.
122. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Def: Plessy was forced to move to the back of a train because he was black; he then sued the city which turned to the Supreme Court who deemed the city did not violate the fourteenth amendment as long as they gave him a place to sit-"seperate but equal." Sig: legalized segregation and encouraged Jim Crow laws which stirpped blacks rights.
123. Election of 1896
Def: Bryan Democrat/Populist vs McKinley Republican; the main debate topic was silver vs. gold; the election produced the "Cross of Gold" speech by Bryan; McKinley won. Sig: corruption and stalemate decreased
124. Spanish-American War, 1898
Def: caused by American nationalism Cuban revolt yellow press (Hearst-DeLome letter) "Maine" explosion; Teller amendement initiated war but denied U.S. rule over Cuba; fighting first broke out in Phillipines with Roosevelt and new navy then we fought in Cuba and suffered heavy losses in due to illness. Sig: U.S. became world power
125. Open Door policy, 1899
McKinleys Secretary of State asked Russia, Japan, Great Britain, France and German to accept the concept that all nations would have equal trading privileges in China.
126. Filipino rebellion, 1899-1901
- Spanish American War. Spanish are beaten here first then in Cuba.
127. William McKinley assassinated, 1901
inside the Temple of Music located on the grounds of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.William McKinley,was shot twice by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist.
128. Theodore Roosevelt mediated a coal miner's strike, 1902
became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent.
129. Wright Brothers flew the first airplane, 1903
n 1903 the brothers built the powered Wright Flyer I, using their preferred material for construction, spruce, a strong and lightweight wood, and Pride of the West muslin for surface coverings. the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17
130. Northern Securities Company broken up, 1904
One of the first anti-trust suits filed. Teddy Roosevelt finally made use of the Sherman Anti-trust act against a company rather than a labor union.
131. Roosevelt Corollary, 1904
Added to the Monroe Doctrine; saying the US would protect business interest in Latin America. Led to poor U.S. - L.A. relations.
132. Hay-Banua-Varilla Treaty, 1904
Granted the US long-term control of the Panama canal zone
133. Upton Sinclair published The Jungle, 1906
muckraking book which described the horrifying detasils fo the Chicago stockyards and meatpacking industry
134. Model T introduced, 1908
Ford motor developed the first mass-produced affordable car
135. NAACP organized, 1909
Covil rights organizations that worked to end segregation and improve economic advancement
136. Election of 1912
was a four-way contest, William Howard Taft, Woodraw Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, Eugene Debs Wilson was elected
137. 16th Amendment, 1913
Progressive Amendment and Populist idea to directly elect senators
138. 17th Amendment, 1913
allowed for the direct election of Senators.
139. Federal Reserve System created, 1913
is the central banking system of the United States. It was created in 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907
140. Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914
Strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up monopolies (trusts). Exempted unions from being broken up.
141. Birth of a Nation, 1915
is a 1915 American silent film co-written co-produced, and directed by D. W. Griffith and based on the novel and play The Clansman,
142. Pancho Villa's raid, 1916
Raids along US-Mexican border. President Wilson sent the army to search for him, but he wasn't captured.
143. United States entered World War I, 1917
Isolationist foreign policy was encouraged by Congress's apprehensions about giving other countries a political door into US policies and the cultural melting pot of the United States' population
144. The Fourteen Points, 1918
presented to Congress concerning peace when the war ended.
145. 18th Amendment, 1919
was the result of decades of effort by temperance movements and at the time was generally considered a progressive amendment.
146. Versailles Treaty defeated, 1919
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
147. Palmer Raids, 1920
fears of socialism fueled by Communist takeover of Russia. Attorney General Palmer ordered arrests of arrestsof anarchists and Socialists.
148. 19th Amendment, 1920
Guranteed womens right to bote in all elections at the local, state, and national level.
149. National Origins Act, 1924
Aimed at limiting the immigration of southern and eastern Europeans
150. Teapot Dome scandal, 1923-24
Controversy/scandal during Harding's presidency concerning government accepting bribes for granting oil prices.
151. Scopes trial, 1925
Court case which challenged the constitutionality of laws which made it illegal to teach the theory of evolution.
152. KKK marched on Washington, 1925
Klan membership had peaked in 1925. After that, the American Unity League tried to diminish its power by publishing the names of klansmen.
153. Charles Lindbergh's flight, 1927
emerged from virtual obscurity to almost instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May, New York to Paris
154. Sacco and Vanzetti executed, 1927
famous case involving two Italian immigrants who had been convicted of murder and robbery.
155. The Jazz Singer, 1927
First feature-length film with running (synchronized) dialogue. End of the silent-film era.
156. Stock Market crash, 1929
s a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth. Crashes are driven by panic as much as by underlying economic factors.
157. Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
a tariff with rates the highest in history on foreign imports in order to protect their markets from foreign business.
158. Stimson Doctrine, 1932
Weak response to Japan's aggression in China before WWII
159. Bonus march, 1932
a thousand unemployed WWI veterans marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of the bonuses promised to them at a later date.
160. First New Deal, 1933
s a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as President of the United States,\. The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": relief, recovery, and reform.
161. Good Neighbor Policy, 1933
the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America.
162. Schecter v. the United States, 1935
was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress' power under the commerce clause.
163. Dust Bowl, 1935
poor farming practices, drought, and high winds blew away millions of tons fo dried topsoil ruining the crops of the Great Plains.
164. Second New Deal, 1935
the term used by commentators at the time and historians ever since to characterize the second stage of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In his address to Congress in January 1935, Roosevelt called for three major goals: improved use of national resources, security against old age, unemployment and illness, and slum clearance, as well as a national welfare program (the WPA) to replace state relief efforts
165. Wagner Act, 1935
Law that replaced the labor provisions of the National Recovery Administration that was declared unconstitutional.
166. Social Security Act, 1935
federal insurance program based upon the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout peoples working careers.
167. Huey Long assassinated, 1935
Senator from Louisiana who gained attentiion by promising minimum income of 5,000- was killed
168. Congress of Industrial Organizations created, 1935
proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
169. FDR's court-packing plan, 1937
FDR tried to add a new Supreme Court Justice for every justice over the age of 70. He wanted to do this because the SC was ruling against many of his New Deal programs. The court-packing plan failed.
170. Roosevelt recession, 1937-38
was a temporary reversal of the pre-war 1933 to 1941 economic recovery from the Great Depression in the United States
171. Lend-Lease Act, 1940
Arms and ships for cash or credit to Great Britain. Seemed to break neutrality stance.
172. Atlantic Charter, 1941
as a pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the United Kingdom and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies
173. Pearl Harbor, 1941
Japanese surprise attack on the naval fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941
174. Japanese-American internment, 1942
as the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States
175. Normandy invasion, 1944
was the invasion and establishment of Allied forces in Normandy, France, during Operation Overlord in World War II. The invasion was the largest amphibious operation in history.
176. G.I. Bill, 1944
Bill which assisted in transitioning the 15 million returning veterans to a peacetime economy.
177. Yalta Conference, 1945
the site at which the Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) agreed on what to do after victory in Europe.
178. Potsdam Conference, 1945
articipants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The three nations were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill
179. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945
he United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities These two events are the only active deployments of nuclear weapons in war to date.
180. "Iron Curtain" speech, 1946
a metaphor used throughout the Cold War to refer to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe
181. Truman Doctrine, 1947
the policy taken by the United States for decades to combat the growth of Communism in other countries.
182. Marshall Plan, 1947
The U.S. gave 12 million dollars European countries to help after the wars casualties. France accepted and the Soviet Union refused
183. Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
a republican sponsered law to check the growing power of unions.
184. Brooklyn Dodgers sign Jackie Robinson, 1947
was the first black Major League Baseball (MLB) player of the modern era.
185. National Security Act, 1947
was signed by United States President Harry S. Truman on July 26, 1947, and realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II
186. Berlin Airlift, 1948
British and American planes that sent supplies to the people of West Berlin after being cut off by the Soviet Union
187. Election of 1948
as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas E. Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party
188. NATO formed, 1949
An organization formed to unite the U.S. with Allies. The Soviet Union responded with the Warsaw Pact.
189. Joseph McCarthy attacked the State Department, 1950
The Second Red Scare included the Senator accusing many government officials of Communist ties, especially those in the State department.
190. Korean War, 1950-53
was a military conflict between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.
191. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed, 1953
were American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war. The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history
192. Brown v. the Board of Education, 1954
The desegregation of all public schools. Thurgood Marsahll was the lawyer, which would become the first African-American Supreme Court Justice, the decision was ruled by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Overturning the case of Plessy v. Fergurson.
193. Geneva Accords, 1954
split Vietnam at the 17th parallel following the French-Indochina War between Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh and the French
194. Joseph McCarthy condemned for misconduct, 1954
McCarthy's bullying tactics and lack of evidence caused the public to turn against him, especially after his army hearings were televised.
195. Montgomery bus boycott, 1955-56
Boycott against how Rosa Parks was arrested for not getting of her seat. Started the civil rights movement.
196. Interstate Highway Act, 1956
A highway had to be constructed to travel between states. when Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law. With an original authorization of 25 billion dollars for the construction of the Interstate Highway System supposedly over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time
197. Integration of Little Rock High School, 1957
Nine students who would get to be part of of a desegregated high school.
198. Sputnik, 1957
A Russian satellite, which was the first to be launched succesfully into space. Started the Space Race.
199. U-2 aircraft shot down by U.S.S.R., 1960
during the Cold War on May 1, 1960, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace.
200. Greensboro sit-ins, 1960
Civil Rights tactic of sitting in segregated restaurants until being served or removed. Kicks off in Greensboro, NC at Woolworth's lunch counter.
201. Eisenhower's Farewell Address, 1961
"a farewell speech to the nation that reflected his preoccupation with international relations and world peace. While calling attention to what he saw as the ongoing threat posed by Communism, he also warned Americans to be careful to limit the increasing power of what he called ""the military-industrial complex"
202. Bay of Pigs, 1961
In April 1961, th CIA trained force Cubans landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, but it failed to set off an uprising there.
203. Freedom Riders, 1961
civil rights activists that rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia
204. Peace Corps, 1961
is an American volunteer program run by the United States Government,.The mission of the Peace Corps includes: providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand US culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries.
205. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
A U.S. aircraft spotted a Russian base filled with missles in Cuba.
206. Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, 1963
book that encouraged middle class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather confining themselves to the roles of housewives.
207. March on Washington, 1963
"A march which represented MLK's ""I have a dream"" speech. Attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital, and one of the first to have extensive television coverage
208. John Kennedy assassinated, 1963
thirty-fifth President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was fatally shot while traveling with his wife Jacqueline, Texas governor John Connally, and the latter's wife, Nellie, in a Presidential motorcade
209. The Great Society, 1964-65
was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice
210. Civil Rights Act of 1964
A movement led by MLK toward equal rights.
211. Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions, 1964
after the naval incident in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnams coast to secure congressional authorization for U.S. forces going into combat.
212. Malcolm X assassinated, 1965
Malcolm X began to speak to a meeting of the Organization of Afro-American Unity when a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400 when he was shot 16 times at Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom
213. Vietnam War escalated, 1965
U.S. casualties were attacked by vietnam therefore Johnson declared war with vietnam sending planes to attack and leading to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
214. Voting Rights Act, 1965
abolished the practice of collecting a poll tac and literacy test, and provided federal registrars in areas in which blacks were kept from voting.
215. Watts riots, 1965
a large-scale riot which lasted 6 days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. Though the riots began in August, there had previously been a buildup of racial tension in the area.
216. Miranda v. State of Arizona, 1966
had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.
217. Tet Offensive, 1968
the Vietcong launched an all out,surprise attack almost every provincial capital and American base in South Vietnam
218. Johnson withdrew from presidential race, 1968
where he announced that the bobbing of vietnam will end. Were he said that he will not seek for office the following year.
219. Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated, 1968
A civils right leader, assassinated because of discrimination and hate of white supremacy. a prominent American leader of the African-American civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39.
220. Robert Kennedy assassinated, 1968
took place shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968, in Los Angeles, California. After winning the California primary election for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, Kennedy was shot as he walked through the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel
221. Anti-war riots at the Chicago Democratic Convention, 196
The Democratic Convention in 1968 was chaotic after its front runner Robert F. Kennedy had been assassinated. War protesters had flooded the city to demonstrate against Johnson's war policies, and his vice president Hubert Humphrey.
222. AIM created, 1968
is a Native American activist organization in the United States. In October 1973 the American Indian Movement gathered its forces from across the country onto the Trail of Broken Treaties, championing Indian unity. The national AIM agenda focused on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty
223. Election of 1968
was the 46th quadrennial United States presidential election. the Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon won the election over the Democratic nominee, Vice President Hubert Humphrey
224. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, 1969
One of America's greatest achievement because they beat China and Russia in the Space Race into launching a man into space.
225. Vietnamization, 1969
Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam and gave South Vietnam money, weapons, and training that they needed to take over the full of conduct of the war.
226. My Lai massacre made public, 1969
was the mass murder of 504 citizens in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, conducted by a unit of the United States Army. All of the victims were civilians and most were women, children, and elderly people. Many of the victims were raped, beaten, tortured, and some of the bodies were found mutilated
227. Kent State, 1970
protest an universtiy campuses, four students killed by national guard
228. Pentagon Papers, 1971
is a top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of the New York Times in 1971
229. Nixon visited China, 1972
Nixons diplomatic visit to China in 1972. Extremely important for a Western Country to recognize Mao and the Communist government of China rather than the government of Taiwan/Formosa as the rightful government.
230. Watergate break-in, 1972
break in of the Democratic Headquarters in Watergate Hotel by members of committee
231. SALT I and the policy of detente, 1972
Negotiation between US and USSR to reduce the number of nuclear missiles each side has. Followed Nixon's policy of detente, or easing of tensions.
232. Roe v. Wade, 1973
A trial concerning privacy rights concerning abortion; the court ruled that after the first tri-mester the could not undergo the process of abortion.
233. OPEC oil embargo, 1973
OPEC is an oil organization and the embargo stop its supply of the oil of those who supported Israel.
234. Nixon resigned, 1974
About to be impeached, so he resingned. The Supreme Court and House of Representatives found out that he was abusing his powers.
235. Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
Provided for transition of ownership of the Panama Canal to Panama in 1999. The US had owned it since 1903.
236. Camp David Accords, 1979
Carter won the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering a peace settlement between Egypt and Israel.
237. Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, 1979
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan reignited tension between the United States and Soviet Union.
238. Iranian hostage crisis, 1979-81
During the Iranian Revolution in 1979, student protesters took over the US embassy taking hostage fifty-two Americans for 444 days. Ruined the presidency of Carter.
239. Reaganomics began, 1981
Reagan's policy of giving tax breaks to the rich with the idea that they spend more money so they will improve the economy. Also known as trickle-down economics. Failed to reduce the poverty levels.
240. Beirut embassy bombed, 1983
Suicide bombing of a US embassy in Syria. Seen to be the beginning of the US-Muslim Terrorist tensions.
241. Invasion of Grenada, 1983
Fearing a Communist takeover of the tiny island country north of Venezuela, President Reagan sent in Marines to lead a coup against the government. Controversial action by the US during the Cold War.
242. Iran-Contra scandal, 1987
Illegal sale of arms to Iran in order to release hostages and with the hope that the funds could then be funneled to support the Nicaraguan contras.
243. INF Treaty, 1988
Treaty between the US and Russia to limit the number of intermediate range missiles each side owns. A positive sign that the Cold War was ending.
244. Berlin Wall tom down, 1989
The long standing symbol of the Cold War fell when East Germany and West Germany demanded reunification. This was only made possible after successful attempts by other Soviet bloc countries attempted independence.
245. Persian Gulf War, 1991
A war that took place in Kuwait, which Saddam Hussein had invaded, for oil. Also known as the operation Desert Storm.
246. Soviet Union dissolved, 1991
The dissolve happens after the cold war due to the loss of its power and influence.
247. Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
A bombing that had the most deaths and considered the worst domestic terrorist attack until 9/11.
248. Balanced Budget Agreement passed, 1997
A bipartisan agreement signed by Clinton in 1997 that agreed to balance the budget by 2002. It did so by slowing the growth of entitlement programs and tax breaks. The plan worked.
249. Clinton impeached trial, 1999
A trial accused Clinton of corruption for having affairs with his secretary.
250. September 11th terrorist attacks, 2001
The fall of the twin towers by a terrorist group named Al-Qaueda. As a result the patriot act was developed to strictly watch over the U.S.
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