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Major Human impacts on the World's deserts.
Large desert cities, soil destruction by vehicles, soil salinization, storage of toxic waste
Major human impacts on the world's grasslands
conversion of savanna to cropland, release of CO2 to atm from burning of grasslands, overgrazing, oil production in fragile tundra
Major human impacts on the world's forests.
clearing and degradation for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, urban development, less biodiverse tree plantations.
Major human impacts on the world's mountains.
landless poor migrating uphill to survive, timber extraction, mineral extraction.
Major threats to Coral reefs.
ocean warming, soil erosion, algae growth from fertilizer runoff, coral reef bleaching, damage from anchors, ships, divers
causes of desertification.
overgrazing, deforestation, surface mining, erosion, salinization, soil compaction.
advantages of conservation tillage
reduces erosion, saves fuel, cuts costs, reduces CO2 release from soil.
effects of food production
loss of biodiversity (habitat disruption, pesticide runoff), soil (erosion, salinization, waterlogging, desertification) air pollution (greenhouse gas emissions, pesticides) water(aquifer depletion, runoff, sediment pollution, eutrophication), and human health (nitrates and pesticides in water, contamination of drinking water
advantages of aquaculture
highly efficient, high yields, can reduce over-harvesting, little use of fuel.
disadvantages of aquaculture
large inputs of feed, land and water, lots of waste, destroys mangrove forests, can be killed easily
disadvantages of conventional oil
need to find a substitute soon, air pollution when burned, releases CO2, water pollution
disadvantages of oil shale and tar sand
high costs, low net energy yield, need lots of water, land disruption, water and air pollution
advantages of natural gas
ample supplies, high net energy, low cost, less air pollution, easily transported
disadvantages of natural gas
nonrenewable, release CO2, methane can leak from pipelines, difficult to transport to another country
disadvantages of coal
land disruption, air pollution and water pollution, high land use, high CO2 and SO2 emissions, releases radioactive particulates and mercury
advantages of synthetic natural gas and liquid synfuels from coal
large potential supply, vehicle fuel, moderate cost,
disadvantages of synthetic natural gas and liquid synfuels from coal
low to moderate net energy yield, increases mining of coal, high water use, higher CO2 emissions than coal
advantages of nuclear power
large fuel supply, low environmental impact (w/o accidents) little CO2, moderate land and water disruption,
disadvantages of nuclear power
high cost, low net energy yield, high environmental impact (w/ accidents) produces radioactive waste
advantages of solar energy systems
save money, reduces air pollution and CO2 emissions, reduced dependence on imported oil
disadvantages of solar energy systems
making cells produces toxic chemicals, can damage fragile deserts, need back up systems
advantages of passive and active solar heating
energy is free, net energy is moderate to high, quick installation, no CO2
advantages of large dams and reservoirs for electricity
moderate to high net energy, efficient, low cost electricity,
disadvantages of large dams and reservoirs for electricity
high construction costs, high environmental impact, floods natural areas
advantages of wind
moderate to high net energy, efficient, low environmental impact, land can be used
advantages of burning solid biomass
large potential supply, moderate cost, no net CO2 (if done sustainably)
disadvantages of burning solid biomass
nonrenewable if done unsustainably, moderate to high environmental impact, soil erosion, water pollution, loss of habitat
advantages of hydrogen as fuel
can be produced form water, low environmental impact, no CO2, high efficient
disadvantages of hydrogen as fuel
not found in nature, energy is needed to produce, negative net energy, high costs
advantages of geothermal energy
highly efficient, moderate net energy, lower CO2 emissions, low land use
disadvantages of geothermal energy
scarcity of suitable sites, depleted if used too rapidly, CO2 emissions
colorless odorless gas, poisonous to animals, forms in incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels
CO health effects
reacts w/ hemoglobin, reduces ability to bring oxygen to brain, headaches, dizziness, heart attacks, death
SO2 environmental effects
reduces visibility, acid deposition, can damage trees, soils, aquatic life,
Suspended particulate matter (SPM) description
variety of particles and droplets, small and light enough to remain suspended in atm. causes smoke, dust, haze
SPM health effects
nose and throat irritation, lung damage, bronchitis, can cause mutations, cancer, reproductive problems
SPM environmental effects
reduces visibility, acid depostion can cause damage trees, soils, aquatic life
Lead health effects
accumulates in body, brain and other nervous system damage, mental retardation, can cause cancer
source: naturally occurring radioactive gas, found in soil, cracks in foundation.
effects: lung cancer
CO (as indoor air pollutant)
source: faulty furnace, unvented gas stoves, kerosene heaters,
effects: headaches, drowsiness, death
naturally occurring silicate material woven into cloth.
source: pipe insulation, vinyl ceiling, floor tiles
effects: mesothelioma, asbestosis, lung cancer, lung disease
ex: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasitic worms
human sources: human and animal waste
ex: organic waste such as animal manure and plant debris, can be decomposed by aerobic bacteria
human sources: sewage, animal feedlots,
effects: bacteria can degrade water quality, less DO, fish die
ex: water-soluble acids, toxic metals, salts
human sources: surface runoff, household cleaners
effects: freshwater unusable for drinking and irrigation, skin cancers,
ex: oil, gasoline, plastic, pesticides
human sources: industrial effluents, runoff.
effects: nervous system damage, reproductive disorders, cancers
ex: water-soluble compounds containing nitrates, phosphates, ammonium ions
human sources: sewage, manure, runoff
effects: eutrophication, drinking water lowers oxygen carrying levels of blood, can kill unborn babies
ex: soil, silt
human sources: land erosion
effects: cloud water, disrupt food webs, carry pesticides, clog lakes
ex: radioactive isotopes
human source: nuclear power plants, mining uranium, natural sources
effects: genetic mutations, miscarriages, cancers
ex: excessive heat
human sources: water cooling of electric plants
effects: lowers dissolved oxygen levels, fish killed(range of tolerance)
disadvantages of incineration
high cost, air pollution, produces toxic ash, encourages waste production
advantages of landfills
no open burning, low groundwater pollution, low cost, can handle large amounts of waste
disadvantages of landfills
noise, air pollution (CO2 and methane) slow decomposition of waste, encourages waste production
disadvantages of deep well injection
leaks or spills at surface, leaks in pipe, earthquakes encourages waste production
advantages of mass transit rail systems
more energy efficient than cars, less air pollution than cars,
advantages of rapid rail systems
can reduce travel by car and plane, much more energy efficient than cars
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