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food webs & photosynthesis

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PLAY
metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical processes
catabolic
energy is released
anabolic
energy is absorbed
kinetic energy
energy of motion; energy in the process of doing work
potential energy
energy of position; energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement
entropy
measure of disorder that is proportional to randomness; most random form of energy
wavelength
the distance b/w the crests or troughs
frequency
more crests = incr.; few crests = decr.
heterotroph
requires at least one organic nutrient like glucose
autotroph
uses CO2 for its carbon source
trophic level
feeding relationships between organisms in a community
herbivore
consumes only plants; primary consumers
carnivore
consumes only meat; tertiary/ quaternary consumers
omnivore
consumes meat and plants; secondary consumers
detrivore
a decomposer
mesophyll
ground tissue of a leaf between the upper and lower epidermis and are useful during photosynthesis
grana (granum)
stack of thylakoids
stroma
the liquid portion of the cholorplast around the thylakoid membrane; synthesizes H2O and CO2
thylakoid
in the cholorplasts; converts light energy to chemical energy
chlorophyll
green pigment in chloroplasts
carotenoid
inside chloroplasts and is yellow or orange; this allows it to absorb light waves that chlorophyll can't and broadens the spectrum of colors that can be used for photosynthesis
ATP
produced in cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation
chemiosmosis
creates ATP by using energy acquired from H+ ions
C3 plant
uses calvin cycle to make CO2 into an organic molecule
C4 plant
solves the problem of photorespiration b/c it has a diff. structure than C3 plant
CAM plant
solves photorespiration by opening stomata at night and storing CO2 during the day
hydrolysis
breaking bonds using water
endergonic reaction
chemical reaction where energy is absorbed
exergonic reaction
chemical reaction where energy is released
photophosphorylation
takes place in thylakoid membrane in photosystem I; changes ADP and phosphate into ATP
photorespiration
dehydrating of plants and O2 building up in the leaf and binding with Rubsico
photosynthesis
light energy converts to chemical energy
photosystem
in thylakoid membrane that absorb light for photosynthesis
first law of thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
after every energy transformation there is a reduction in the usable/ free energy; incr. in entropy
calvin cycly
occurs in stroma
plant hormones
alter expression of genes, affect the activity of enzymes, and change the property of membranes
auxin
formation of adventitious roots, promots fruit growth b/c developing seeds possess it, herbidcide
equal concentration of auxin and cytokinin
undifferentiated callus growth but no differentiation
concentration of cytokinin is greater than auxin
shoot buds develop
concentration of auxin is greater than cytokinin
roots form
auxin down from shoot
inhibits axillary buds
cytokinin up from root
promotes lateral growth by signaling axillary buds to grow
gibberellins
stem elongation, fruit growth, germination
abscisic acid (ABA)
slows growth, directs leaf primordia to develop scales, inhibits germination, accumlates during droughts
ethylene
leaf abscission, fruit rippening, senescence
senescence
aging, getting older
leaf abscissin
aging leaf produces less auxin, ethylene induces enzymes to hydrolyze polysaccharides in cell walls, weakens abscission layer, leaves fall