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Social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century. Organized in 1867.

Coinage Act

1873- at the height of Grant's power, he outlaws anything to be treated as equal to gold. Anti-bimetalism.

Assassination of Garfield

Garfield angered the Stalwarts by giving reformers most of his patronage jobs once he was elected. On July 2, 1881, he walked through Washington D.C. Train Station and was shot 2 times by a mentally unbalanced lawyer named Charles Guiteau, whom Garfield turned down for a job. He finally died from his wounds on September 19th.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.

National Farmer's Alliance

Late-nineteenth century groups that worked to improve the condition of farmers in the West and the South; formed 1889

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

McKinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

Depression of 1893-1897

begun by Panic of 1893

Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act

repealed by Cleveland in 1893 and upset farmers

Overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani

as deposed in a coup d'état led largely by American citizens who were opposed to Lili'uokalani's attempt to establish a new Constitution. The success of the coup efforts was supported by the landing of U.S. Marines, who came ashore at the request of the conspirators. The coup left the queen imprisoned at Iolani Palace under house arrest.

Coxey's Army

a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time

Pullman Strike

1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.

Free Silver

Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan

Cross of Gold

William Jennings Bryan's famous speech that criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; said in the speech that farmers were being crucified on this

William Jennings Bryan

Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Dingley Tariff

Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.

Spanish-American War

War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Election of 1896

Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.

First Open Door Notes


Boxer Rebellion

1899 A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out

Currency Act 1900

officially commited US to gold; set aside gold reserve to be exchanged for paper currency

Second Open Door Notes

1900 Argument made by the US not to split China up among the European powers.

Platt Amendments

a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.

Philippines Government Act

1902 federal law that established a governor and a two house legislature for the Philippines, with the governor and members of the legislature's upper house appointed by the US

Hay-Herran Treaty

A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.

Philippe Bunau-Varilla

French engineer who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.

Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000

Wizard of Oz Allegory - Dorothy

the American people: plucky, good natured, naive

Wizard of Oz Allegory - Toto

the Prohibition (Temperance) party. Favored the bimetallic standard but like any fringe group often pulled in the wrong direction. So they got to be a dog. (Toto is a play on "teetotalers.")

Wizard of Oz Allegory - Oz

the almighty ounce (oz) of gold

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Yellow-brick Road

paved with gold bricks, leads to nowhere

Wizard of Oz Allegory - Silver Slippers

originally the property of the Wicked Witch of the East, until Dorothy drops the house on the witch. Walking on the yellowbrick road with the silver slippers represented the bimetallic standard. (MGM changed the silver slippers to the vivid (garish, even) ruby slippers to exploit the fabulous technology of Technicolor.)

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Good Witch of the North

New England, a populist stronghold

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Good Witch of the South

the South, another populist stronghold

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wicked Witch of the East

Eastern banking and industrial interests. She is killed by Dorothy's falling house because the Populists expected that the eastern industrial workers would vote Populist, but this never really happened

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wicked Witch of the West

the West was where the Populists were strongest. The only reason why the West gets a wicked witch is a) you need two bad guys to balance the two good guys, and especially, b) William McKinley was from Ohio, then thought of as a western state. (I guess.) The wicked witch is sometimes identified directly with President McKinley

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Munchkins

subjects of the eastern banking and industrial interests, i.e., eastern workers who didn't vote for Bryan

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Scarecrow

western farmers. They were Populists

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Tin Woodsman

eastern workers. Populist mythology always looked to this group for support, but never actually found it in reality. Baum realized this (most Populists didn't) and shows the Tinman as a victim of mechanization. He's so dehumanized he doesn't have a heart

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Cowardly Lion

William Jennings Bryan

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Emerald City

Washington D.C. The color is suggestive of paper greenbacks

Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wizard

President McKinley, but sometimes his advisor, Marcus Alonzo Hanna

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