143 terms

Positive Psychology - Test 2

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Which group of psychologists is known to approach their research with questions about
"what is working" instead of "what is not working?"
Developmental Psychologists
What do we call researchers who study resources that help children and adolescents
overcome life's many challenges?
Resilience Researchers
Who designs and conducts programs to help youth make the most of their personal assets and
resources?
Positive Youth Developmentalists
What is the most parsimonious definition of resilience?
"bouncing back"
What are the two things scholars agree must be present for a person to be considered
resilient?
risk or adversity
When determining a resilient child's level of post-threat functioning what should observers
consider?
A return to normal functioning
Which two primary characteristics accounted for the resiliency of at-risk children in the Werner and Smith study involving a cohort of 700 children born on the island of Kauai?
An outgoing disposition and several sources of support
Many of the children in Dr. Werner's study attributed their resiliency to what factor?
The support they obtained from one caring adult
Which of the following is one of the nine positive outcomes targeted by positive youth
development programs?
Recognizing positive behavior
What is the name of the program that matches low income children and adolescents with
adult volunteers who are committed to providing caring and supportive relationships?
Big Brothers and Big Sisters
Within the Chickering model, what is the primary developmental goal for college students?
Developmental Competence
Although scholars agree on what needs to be present for a person to be considered resilient. There is considerable debate regarding what?
The universality of protective factors.
The most celebrated cases of resilience often depict an individual overcoming overwhelming odds so as to become stronger. According to this definition which of the following individuals would be considered resilient?
An individual who was sexually molested as a child but now advocates publicly for
abused women
What major force is often ignored in the conceptualization of resilience outcomes?
Culture
What form of "good adaptation" do researchers agree is necessary to determine who is
resilient?
External
How do resilience researchers define external adaptation?
meeting the expectations of society
How do researchers who focus on the building blocks of resilience approach their work?
They identify how these blocks stack up in a large group of people who are at-risk due to
a stressor.
In the end, what percentage of the Kuai children in Dr. Werner's study were resilient?
80%
Which of the following is considered one of the few universal truths in the resilience
literature?
One caring adult can help a child/youth adapt.
The proliferation of resilience research has occurred in the absence of what?
Rigorous methodology
The soundness of positive youth development programs is determined by which of the following?
The extent to which they promote the good and prevent the bad
How do positive youth developmentalists typically define programs that work?
Programs that work help youth move toward competencies.
Which positive youth development program focuses on awareness of thought patterns and on modifying the explanatory style of students?
The Perm Resiliency Program
What are some of the factors that make positive youth development programs more effective?
The amount of time and structure they provide
What did the participants in Terman's study of 1500 intellectually gifted children nickname themselves?
the "Termites"
Participants in Terman's study who had a high risk of mortality were also more likely to have what type of explanatory style?
Catastrophizing
The six tasks of adult development mapped out by Valliant include which of the following?
Identity and Intimacy
According to Valliant, engagement with a career is characterized by what?
Contentment, compensation, competence, and commitment
Which task of adult development is associated with building a broader social circle and
altruism?
Generativity
Who protects traditions and rituals that facilitate the development of younger people?
the "Keeper of Meaning"
Which task of adult development is associated with increased spirituality and a greater sense of contentment with life?
Integrity
In Chapter 5, Sarah was able to convince her team leader that she wanted to "think about design" rather than produce designs. Why is Sarah's story notable?
Because she anticipated the need for flexibility in her sixth decade of life
According to Rowe and Kahn (1998), who summarized the findings from the MacArthur
Study of Successful Aging, what is one component of aging well?
Avoiding disease
Valiant further simplified Rowe and Kahn's definition of successful aging. What three components did he include in his characterization of positive aging?
Joy, love, and learning
What kind of support is important for successful aging?
Instrumental support
According to Glass, changes in productivity over time are associated with which of the following outcomes?
More hospital admissions and strokes
What do not smoking, being educated, and having stable marriage all predict?
Healthy aging
Which of the following dimensions were used to classify individuals as "sad-sick" in the Study of Adult Development?
Mental health, social support, and life satisfaction
What was the most robust predictor of being in the happy-well group versus the sad-sick group?
The extent to which people used mature psychological coping
In 2001 Banner, Snowdon, and Friesen evaluated the autobiographies of 180 Catholic nuns
written in the early 20th century. According to the results of their study, positive emotional content in the writings was inversely correlated with what outcome?
Risk of mortality sixty years later
Which contextual factor promotes successful aging across studies?
Social support
The Maturational and Biological theory of development has its greatest impact in what area?
Child rearing
Which developmental theory is based on the assumption that development is a function of the laws of learning?
Behavioral
Within the Cognitive-Developmental framework, what is the primary method used to study development?
Social and cognitive problem solving
What are the important variables most often studied within the Behavioral framework?
Frequency of behaviors
Which of the following protective factors for psychosocial resilience in children and youth
are found within the community?
Effective schools and high levels of public safety
Risk-focused strategies, asset-focused strategies, and process-focused strategies are three
strategies for promoting resilience in what group of individuals?
Children and youth
Which emotional term is defined as a person's immediate, physiological response to a
stimulus?
Affect
How is mood different from emotion?
Mood is objectless, free-floating, and long-lasting.
Which emotional term involves responses that occur when we become aware of painful or pleasurable experiences and associated autonomic arousal and evaluate the situation?
Emotion
What is the definition of happiness?
Happiness is a positive emotional state that is defined individually or subjectively.
Within the scientific community there is little consensus on the definition of happiness. (T/F)
True
Which term for well-being is most likely to be used by the media and lay people?
Happiness
A combination of positive affect, general life satisfaction, and the absence of negative affect
is the definition of which emotional term?
Subjective well-being
In his research on the effects of prolonged exposure to fear and anger, what did Hans Selye
conclude?
That while physical stress harms the body it also has a survival value for humans.
Watson and Lee Anna Clark developed the PANAS-X. What two dimensions of affect does the PANAS-X assess?
Valence and content
According to the PANAS-X, how are negative affect states described?
By general distress
What basic question was the PANAS-X designed to answer?
Can we experience positive and negative affect simultaneously?
In an experiment by Isen, how did induced positive affect through the finding of a coin effect human behavior?
Those who found the coin were more likely to help someone in need.
When experiencing positive emotions, what three (3) things are we more likely to do?
Help other people, be flexible in our thinking, and come up with solutions to our problems.
According to Fredrickson, how are momentary thought-action repertoires defined?
As a broad range of behavioral options
In Fredrickson's model, what component consists of the expansion of an individual'smomentary thought-action repertoire?
Broaden
The increased likelihood of behaving positively toward other people and developing more positive relationships are the benefits of what positive emotion?
Joy
What are the benefits of juvenile play?
It promotes higher levels of creativity and influences brain development.
How might joy and contentment have an "undoing" potential for negative emotions?
They act as antidotes to negative emotions.
According to Fredrickson and Losada, what is the mean ratio of positive emotions that
predicts human flourishing?
2:9
What do need/goal satisfaction theories of happiness state?
the reduction of tension or the satisfaction of needs lead to happiness.
Which theory does not view happiness as changing with life conditions?
Genetic/personality predisposition theories
Which theory of happiness would be consistent with the statement "we are happy because we
have reached a desired outcome?"
Need/goal satisfaction theories
How do process/activity theories explain happiness?
Engaging in particular life activities generates happiness.
Who proposed the theory of flow?
Csikszentmihalyi
How do genetic/personality predisposition theorists explain the experience emotion?
It is related to certain personality traits.
A combination of positive affect (in the absence of negative affect) and general life satisfaction the definition of what term?
Subjective well-being
The subjective evaluation of one's status in the world is a simple definition of what?
Subjective well-being
How does marital status influence subjective well-being?
Individuals who are married report higher subjective well-being than individuals who
are not married.
What two qualities or characteristics consistently emerge in the lives of the happiest young adults?
Good mental health and good social relationships
According to Aristotle, what is eudaimonia?
Happiness based on a lifelong pursuit of meaningful goals.
According to Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade, a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices are the three major factors involved in what positive emotion?
Happiness
According to Ryff and Keyes, emotional well-being, social well-being, and psychological well-being are the three components that make up what?
Complete Mental Health
David Myers has identified several strategies for increasing happiness in one's life. What is one of these strategies?
Give priority to close relationships
What is affect believed to be a component of?
Emotion
What is emotion a more specific version of?
Mood
The appraisal of an event as painful or pleasurable and the experience of autonomic arousal are components of what emotional term?
Affect
Negative and positive affect were once thought to be polar opposites. How are they understood now?
As independent with different correlates
In a study in which some physicians were given a gift of chocolate while some were not, how did the group of physicians who received the candy differ from the group who did not receive
candy?
They displayed superior reasoning and decision making.
What do specific action tendencies suggest?
A restricted range of possible behavioral options
After viewing a film clip that induced either positive or negative emotions, how did research participants who watched negative emotions respond to the request to list everything they would like to do at that moment?
They came up with a shorter list of possible activities than those who viewed positive emotions.
In the broaden and build model, how are individuals believed to build resources?
Through an upward spiral of positive emotions
What psychological theory is most in line with need/goal satisfaction theories!
Psychoanalytic
Which theory of happiness is our founders' promise of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" most congruent with?
Process/activity theories
What type of happiness theorist would agree with the statement "happiness changes little over a six year period?"
genetic/personality predisposition theorist
In what type of nation is financial status more highly correlated with satisfaction for students?
Poor nations
To be authentic and live according to real needs and desired goals is characteristic of what view of happiness?
A Eudaimonic view
What does the eudaimonic version of happiness embrace as the goal in all our actions?
Flourishing
How would a psychologist who supports the hedonic perspective view subjective well-being
and happiness?
As synonymous
What type of thinking is inherent in the notion of the American dream?
Future oriented thinking
According to Ellen Goodman, making our lives busy is a downfall of what type of thinking?
Future oriented thinking
Who is credited with founding the concept of self-efficacy?
Albert Bandura
What is at the core of the concept of self-efficacy?
A belief that you can accomplish what you want
Who described self-efficacy as "what I believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions?"
Maddux
"Judgments about what needs to be done in order to reach a desired goal" is the definition oi
what term?
Outcome expectancies
"The analyses of one s capabilities to complete the necessary actions to reach a goal" best
describes what term?
Efficacy expectancies
Bandura would argue that efficacy expectancies are less important than outcome
expectancies. (T/F)
False
Given that self-efficacy is based on social cognitive theory, where does self-efficacy come from?
It is learned over time.
Social cognitive theory states that humans are passive reactors to environmental events and
no control over shaping their lives. (T/F)
False
Which of the following is a developmental antecedent of self-efficacy?
Modeling
From a neurobiological perspective, what areas of the brain are believed to play a role in seli
efficacy?
Frontal and prefrontal lobes
What was the Occupational Questionnaire designed to measure?
Students' mastery of various vocations
With regard to assessing self efficacy, what would Bandura state?
Self-efficacy should reflect beliefs about using abilities and skills in specific circumstances and domains.
The Self-Efficacy Scale measures two factors. What are these factors?
General self-efficacy and social self-efficacy
Bandura would support a trait perspective of measuring self-efficacy. (T/F)
False
The Self-Efficacy Scale is what type of index?
Trait-like
What do high levels of situation-specific self-efficacy predict?
Lower anxiety
What does elevated self-efficacy decrease?
Unhealthy behaviors
The extent to which we believe we can work together effectively to accomplish our shared goals is the definition of which term?
Collective self-efficacy
Who is considered the founder of the theory of learned optimism?
Seligman
What is the basis of the theory of learned optimism?
People make attributions or explanations about the things that happen to them.
How would an optimistic student who received a poor grade on an exam likely explain his/her poor performance?
The exam was poorly written.
How would a pessimist explain a bad event?
As internal, stable, and global
What is the evidence that suggests there is some genetic component to explanatory style?
Scores are more highly correlated for identical than fraternal twins.
What types of environments are most likely to promote optimism?
Those which are safe.
Children who experience trauma and parental divorce are likely to have what type of explanatory style?
Pessimism
With respect to the neurobiology of explanatory style, depression has been found to be related to dysfunction in which system of the brain?
The limbic system
What is The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) designed to measure?
Learned optimism
The ability to go back and explore the explanatory style of famous historical figures in their speeches, diaries, or newspapers is a benefit of what measure of attributional style?
The CAVE approach
Which researcher(s) would define optimism as the tendency to believe that good rather than bad things will happen?
Carver and Scheier
Why was The Life Orientation Test (LOT) revised?
Because it overlapped with neuroticism.
What does The Life Orientation Test (LOT) measure?
Optimism as defined to Carver and Scheier
What best predicts approach-oriented coping strategies and planfulness?
Optimism
In the Risking approach to cognitive therapy, what are cognitive techniques used for?
To challenge optimism suppressing schemas
How would you complete the equation: Agency + Pathways = ?
Hope
The goals entailed in hoping must all be of the same difficulty of attainment.
False
Which term best describes the ability to see alternatives when one's route to a goal is blocked?
Pathways Thinking
People who see themselves as having a greater capacity for energetic personal self-tall statements such as "I will keep going" are said to have high levels of what?
Agency
What age would Snyder say hopeful thinking is in place by?
2
In childhood, what is considered crucial in imparting hope?
Strong attachment
In proving its concurrent validity, what was The Hope Scale negatively correlated with?
Depression
What is an advantage of a present temporal orientation?
We can experience great pleasure in intense activities.
What is a disadvantage of a past temporal orientation?
It can produce a conservative and overly cautious approach to life.
Who developed the Time Perspective Inventory?
Zimbardo
What temporal perspective is emphasized in the dominant Caucasian cultural groups in Western cultures?
Future
For Asian Americans, higher pessimism was associated with what?
Greater problem solving
Native Americans, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian Americans tend to perceive time in a manner in which many things are conceptualized as happening at once with people. What is this called?
Polychromic
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